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Wage Earners, Self Employed and Gender in the Informal Sector in Turkey

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  • Aysit Tansel

    () (Department of Economics, Middle East Technical University)

Abstract

This study considers covered and uncovered wage earners and the self-employed. The analysis is carried out for men and women workers separately. The 1994 Turkish Household Expenditure Survey is used first to examine how individuals are selected into the covered and uncovered wage earner, and the self-employed categories. Next, selectivity corrected wage equations are estimated to examine wage determination in these sectors. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of sector of work and male-female wage differentials are carried out. When controlled for the observed characteristics and sample selection, for men, covered wage earners earn more than the uncovered wage earners and the self-employed. For the covered wage earners, men?s expected wages are about twice higher than women?s wages. For the uncovered wage earners, men?s wages are near parity with women?s. These results suggest segmentation for men along the formal and informal lines and substantial discrimination against women in the covered private sector.

Suggested Citation

  • Aysit Tansel, 2001. "Wage Earners, Self Employed and Gender in the Informal Sector in Turkey," Working Papers 0102, Economic Research Forum, revised 01 Nov 2001.
  • Handle: RePEc:erg:wpaper:0102
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Aysit Tansel & Elif Oznur Acar, 2016. "The Formal/Informal Employment Earnings Gap: Evidence from Turkey," Research on Economic Inequality,in: Inequality after the 20th Century: Papers from the Sixth ECINEQ Meeting, volume 24, pages 121-154 Emerald Publishing Ltd.
    2. Lechmann, Daniel S. J. & Schnabel, Claus, 2012. "What Explains the Gender Earnings Gap in Self-Employment? A Decomposition Analysis with German Data," IZA Discussion Papers 6435, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. Nancy Aireth DAZA BAEZ & Luis Fernando GAMBOA, 2013. "An approximation to the Informal-formal wage gap in Colombia 2008-2012," ARCHIVOS DE ECONOMÍA 011196, DEPARTAMENTO NACIONAL DE PLANEACIÓN.
    4. Elif Öznur ACAR & Aysit Tansel, 2014. "Defining And Measuring Informality In The Turkish Labor Market," Working Papers 2014/08, Turkish Economic Association.
    5. Arzu Yavuz, 2011. "Productivity and Wage Differentials between Private and Public Sector in the Developing Countries (Gelismekte Olan Ülkelerde Özel ve Kamu Sektöründeki Verimlilik ve Ücret Farklilasmasi)," Working Papers 1103, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
    6. Aysit Tansel & Halil Ibrahim Keskin & Zeynel Abidin Ozdemir, 2015. "Is There An Infırmal Employment Wage Penalty in Egypt?," ERC Working Papers 1508, ERC - Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University, revised Sep 2015.
    7. repec:voj:journl:v:63:y:2016:i:3:p:293-312 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Gema Álvarez & Carlos Gradín & Mª Soledad Otero, 2013. "Self-Employment: Transition And Earnings Differential," Revista de Economia Aplicada, Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Estructura Economica y Economia Publica, vol. 21(2), pages 61-90, Autumn.
    9. Tansel, Aysit & Kan, Elif Oznur, 2011. "Labor mobility across the formal/informal divide in Turkey: evidence from individual level data," MPRA Paper 35672, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Guataqui, Juan Carlos & García Suaza, Andrés Felipe & Rodríguez, Mauricio, 2009. "Estimaciones de los determinantes de los ingresos laborales en Colombia con consideraciones diferenciales para asalariados y cuenta propia," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO 005756, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO.
    11. Eliane El Badaoui & Eric Strobl & Frank Walsh, 2008. "Is There an Informal Employment Wage Penalty? Evidence from South Africa," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 56, pages 683-710.
    12. Meltem Ince, 2009. "A Socio-Economic Perspective on Women Entrepreneurs: Evidence from Turkey," Economic Studies journal, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Economic Research Institute, issue 4, pages 138-166.
    13. Gizem Akar & Binnur Balkan & Semih Tümen, 2013. "Overview of Firm-Size and Gender Pay Gaps in Turkey: The Role of Informal Employment," Ekonomi-tek - International Economics Journal, Turkish Economic Association, vol. 2(3), pages 1-21, September.
    14. Arda Aktas & Gokce Uysal, 2011. "Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in Turkey Using the Wage Structure Survey," Working Papers 005, Bahcesehir University, Betam, revised Mar 2012.
    15. Guifu, Chen & Shigeyuki, Hamori, 2009. "Formal Employment, Informal Employment and Income Differentials in Urban China," MPRA Paper 17585, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Cem Baslevent, 2016. "Social Transfers and Income Inequality in Turkey: How Important is the Gender Dimension?," Working Papers 1013, Economic Research Forum, revised Jun 2016.
    17. Tansel, Aysit & Ozdemir, Zeynel / A., 2014. "Determinants of Transitions across Formal/Informal sectors in Egypt," MPRA Paper 61183, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Gema Álvarez & Carlos Gradín & M. Soledad Otero, 2009. "Self-employment in Spain: Transition and earnings differential," Working Papers 0907, Universidade de Vigo, Departamento de Economía Aplicada.
    19. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00188745 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Tansel, Aysit & Ozdemir, Zeynel / A., 2014. "Determinants of Transitions across Formal/Informal sectors in Egypt," MPRA Paper 61183, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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