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Health and Wages: Evidence on Men and Women in Urban Brazil

  • Thomas, D.
  • Strauss, J.

Survey data indicate that different dimensions of health affect the wages of men and women in urban Brazil. Height has a large and significant effect on wages: taller men and women earn more. Body mass index (BMI) is associated with higher wages of males, especially among the less-educated, suggesting that strenght may be rewarded with higher wages. Low levels of per capita calorie and protein intakes reduce wages of market-workers, but not the self-employed. After controlling for height, BMI, and calories, the influence of proteins is greater at higher levels, presumably reflecting the impact of higher-quality diets.

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Paper provided by RAND - Reprint Series in its series Papers with number 97-05.

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Length: 20 pages
Date of creation: 1997
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:fth:randrs:97-05
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  1. Strauss, J. & Thomas, D., 1991. "Wages, Schooling and Background: Investments in Men and Women in Urban Brazil," Papers 649, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
  2. Charles R. Nelson & Richard Startz, 1988. "The Distribution of the Instrumental Variables Estimator and Its t-RatioWhen the Instrument is a Poor One," NBER Technical Working Papers 0069, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Haddad, Lawrence J & Bouis, Howarth E, 1991. "The Impact of Nutritional Status on Agricultural Productivity: Wage Evidence from the Philippines," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 53(1), pages 45-68, February.
  4. Heckman, James J, 1974. "Shadow Prices, Market Wages, and Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(4), pages 679-94, July.
  5. Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Wolpin, Kenneth I., 1984. "Migration Selectivity and the Effects of Public Programs," Bulletins 8442, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center.
  6. Schultz, T.P. & Tansel, A., 1993. "Measurement of Returns to Adult Health; Morbidity Effects on Wage Rates in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana," Papers 95, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
  7. Bhargava, Alok & Sargan, J D, 1983. "Estimating Dynamic Random Effects Models from Panel Data Covering Short Time Periods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(6), pages 1635-59, November.
  8. Lam, David & Levison, Deborah, 1991. "Declining inequality in schooling in Brazil and its effects on inequality in earnings," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1-2), pages 199-225, November.
  9. Fogel, Robert W, 1994. "Economic Growth, Population Theory, and Physiology: The Bearing of Long-Term Processes on the Making of Economic Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(3), pages 369-95, June.
  10. Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1994. "Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," NBER Technical Working Papers 0151, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Rosenzweig, Mark R., 1988. "Labor markets in low-income countries," Handbook of Development Economics, in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 15, pages 713-762 Elsevier.
  12. White, Halbert, 1982. "Instrumental Variables Regression with Independent Observations," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(2), pages 483-99, March.
  13. Deolalikar, Anil B, 1988. "Nutrition and Labor Productivity in Agriculture: Estimates for Rural South India," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(3), pages 406-13, August.
  14. Bhargava, Alok, 1991. "Identification and Panel Data Models with Endogenous Regressors," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(1), pages 129-40, January.
  15. Strauss, John & Thomas, Duncan, 1995. "Human resources: Empirical modeling of household and family decisions," Handbook of Development Economics, in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 34, pages 1883-2023 Elsevier.
  16. Deaton, Angus, 1988. "Quality, Quantity, and Spatial Variation of Price," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(3), pages 418-30, June.
  17. Lee, Lung-Fei, 1983. "Generalized Econometric Models with Selectivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(2), pages 507-12, March.
  18. Rosenzweig, Mark R & Wolpin, Kenneth I, 1986. "Evaluating the Effects of Optimally Distributed Public Programs: ChildHealth and Family Planning Interventions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(3), pages 470-82, June.
  19. Thomas, D. & Strauss, J., 1995. "Health, Wealth and Wages of Men and Women in Urban Brazil," Papers 95-11, RAND - Labor and Population Program.
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