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Education Driving the Rise in Dutch Female Employment: Explanations for the Increase in Part-time Work and Female Employment in the Netherlands, Contrasted with Germany

Author

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  • Schettkat, Ronald

    () (University of Wuppertal)

  • Yocarini, Lara

    () (Utrecht University)

Abstract

Over the last 15 years, the Netherlands has experienced a tremendous jobs boom, mainly in services and female employment. This has often been related to changes in the Dutch institutional environment. Using a model which allows for direct utility of work, we find that institutional arrangements like the tax and pension system – often cited as a cause of the Dutch employment boom - contributed only marginally, if at all, to the rise in female labor supply. The increasing proportion of women with higher education and a high valuation of market work were the two main causes of rising female participation in the labor force. In addition, greater flexibility in work schedules (part-time work) has relaxed a demand constraint, allowing more women to participate in the labor market. We find: - that the increased number of women with higher education has contributed substantially to the rise in female labor force participation; - that it was only in the 1990s that the "behavioral" component contributed as much to rising female labor force participation as the "structural" (educational) component; - that there is no evidence that institutional specifics or the change in institutional arrangements (taxes and pensions) favored female labor force participation or that they provided strong incentives for part-time work; - that the work orientation of Dutch women is stronger than that of German women but that there is no evidence of a substantial increase in work orientation during the 1990s; - that there is no evidence that women were previously demand-constrained in the sense that they desired to work part-time but were prevented by a scarcity of part-time work.

Suggested Citation

  • Schettkat, Ronald & Yocarini, Lara, 2001. "Education Driving the Rise in Dutch Female Employment: Explanations for the Increase in Part-time Work and Female Employment in the Netherlands, Contrasted with Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 407, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp407
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. James W. Albrecht & Jan C. van Ours, 2006. "Using Employer Hiring Behavior to Test the Educational Signaling Hypothesis," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 108(3), pages 361-372, October.
    2. Maarten Lindeboom & France Portrait & Gerard J. van den Berg, 2001. "An Econometric Analysis of the Mental-health Effects of Major Events in the Life of Elderly Individuals," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 01-103/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    3. Paola Manzini & Clara Ponsati', 2001. "Stakeholders, Bargaining and Strikes," Game Theory and Information 0112001, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Fuess, Jr., Scott M., 2001. "Union Bargaining Power: A View from Japan," IZA Discussion Papers 393, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Gersbach, Hans & Schniewind, Achim, 2001. "Awareness of General Equilibrium Effects and Unemployment," IZA Discussion Papers 394, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Frondel, Manuel & Schmidt, Christoph M., 2005. "Evaluating environmental programs: The perspective of modern evaluation research," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(4), pages 515-526, December.
    7. Shields, Michael A. & Wheatley Price, Stephen, 2001. "Exploring the Economic and Social Determinants of Psychological and Psychosocial Health," IZA Discussion Papers 396, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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    Cited by:

    1. Ingrid Verheul & Andre van Stel & Roy Thurik, 2004. "Explaining female and male entrepreneurship across 29 countries," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-08, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    demand for labor; Employment; economics of gender; employment structure; time allocation and labor supply; human capital;

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity

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