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Determinants Of Entrepreneurship In Europe


  • Grilo, I.
  • Thurik, A.R.


This paper uses an Eclectic Framework explaining entrepreneurship incorporating different streams of literature and spanning different disciplines. The Eclectic Framework integrates factors shaping the demand for entrepreneurship on the one hand, with those influencing the supply of entrepreneurs on the other hand. It also creates insight into the role of public policy identifying the channels through which the demand or the supply of entrepreneurship can be shifted. In its empirical part the present paper estimates a multinomial logit using survey data from the 15 EU member states, Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein and the US to establish the effect of demographic and other variables on various entrepreneurial engagement levels. Data of two Entrepreneurship Flash Eurobarometer surveys (2003 and 2004) containing over 20,000 observations are used. Other than demographic variables, the set of explanatory variables used includes the perception by respondents of administrative complexities, of availability of financial support, a rough measure of risk tolerance, the respondents’ preference for self-employment and country specific effects. The most striking result is that the perception of lack of financial support has no discriminative effect across the various levels of entrepreneurial engagement.

Suggested Citation

  • Grilo, I. & Thurik, A.R., 2004. "Determinants Of Entrepreneurship In Europe," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2004-106-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
  • Handle: RePEc:ems:eureri:1823

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Aleluia, João & Leitão, João, 2009. "International Entrepreneurship and Technology Transfer: The CDM´s Reality in China," MPRA Paper 16150, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Michael Fritsch & Pamela Mueller, 2007. "The persistence of regional new business formation-activity over time – assessing the potential of policy promotion programs," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 17(3), pages 299-315, June.
    3. Andre van Stel, "undated". "COMPENDIA: Harmonizing business ownership data across countries and over time," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-05, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
    4. Leitão, João & Ferreira, João, 2007. "Liberalization of European Telecommunications and Entrepreneurship: Why German and Portuguese Experiences are so Equal and so Different?," MPRA Paper 5728, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Sander Wennekers & Roy Thurik & André van Stel & Niels Noorderhaven, 2003. "Uncertainty Avoidance and the Rate of Business Ownership across 22 OECD Countries, 1976-2000," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-089/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 01 Sep 2004.
    6. Nikolinka Fertala, 2008. "The shadow of death: do regional differences matter for firm survival across native and immigrant entrepreneurs?," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 35(1), pages 59-80, March.
    7. Joost van Acht & Joop Stam & Roy Thurik & Ingrid Verheul, 2004. "Business Ownership and Unemployment in Japan," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 04-036/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    8. Tomasz Bernat, 2015. "Expected Incomes as a Factor of Entrepreneurship and a Firm Establishment Risk (Oczekiwane dochody jako determinanta przedsiebiorczosci i ryzyka zalozenia wlasnego podmiotu)," Problemy Zarzadzania, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management, vol. 13(56), pages 144-158.
    9. Christian Bjørnskov & Nicolai Foss, 2008. "Economic freedom and entrepreneurial activity: Some cross-country evidence," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 134(3), pages 307-328, March.
    10. Sander Wennekers & Jolanda Hessels & Chantal Hartog, 2009. "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2008 The Netherlands," Scales Research Reports A200914, EIM Business and Policy Research.

    More about this item


    barriers to entry; determinants; entrepreneurship; multinomial logit; nascent entrepreneurship;

    JEL classification:

    • M - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
    • O32 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D

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