IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Models of Self-Employment in a Competitive Market


  • de Wit, Gerrit


A survey is given of models in the literature that can be used to explain the number of self-employed individuals in the framework of a competitive market. Apart from giving a survey, this paper also intends to explain how the various models work. Thus, the connections between the various models can be shown. Copyright 1993 by Blackwell Publishers Ltd

Suggested Citation

  • de Wit, Gerrit, 1993. " Models of Self-Employment in a Competitive Market," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(4), pages 367-397, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jecsur:v:7:y:1993:i:4:p:367-97

    Download full text from publisher

    To our knowledge, this item is not available for download. To find whether it is available, there are three options:
    1. Check below whether another version of this item is available online.
    2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
    3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Nymoen, R, 1991. "A Small Linear Model of Wage- and Price-Inflation in the Norwegian Economy," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 6(3), pages 255-269, July-Sept.
    2. Jacobsen, Hans Jorgen & Schultz, Christian, 1990. " A General Equilibrium Macro Model with Wage Bargaining," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 92(3), pages 379-398.
    3. Mehra, Y P, 1976. "Spillovers in Wage Determination in U.S. Manufacturing Industries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 58(3), pages 300-312, August.
    4. Jackman, Richard, 1985. " Counterinflationary Policy in a Unionised Economy with Nonsynchronised Wage Setting," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 87(2), pages 357-378.
    5. George A. Akerlof, 1969. "Relative Wages and the Rate of Inflation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 83(3), pages 353-374.
    6. Ken Binmore & Ariel Rubinstein & Asher Wolinsky, 1986. "The Nash Bargaining Solution in Economic Modelling," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 17(2), pages 176-188, Summer.
    7. repec:adr:anecst:y:1993:i:32:p:02 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. de la Croix, David, 1992. "Wage Interdependence and Competitiveness," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 1993002, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
    9. Yellen, Janet L, 1984. "Efficiency Wage Models of Unemployment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(2), pages 200-205, May.
    10. Pierre Cahuc, 1990. "La théorie des négociations salariales : une revue de la littérature," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 92(1), pages 21-30.
    11. Clark, Andrew E. & Oswald, Andrew J., 1996. "Satisfaction and comparison income," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(3), pages 359-381, September.
    12. Arnsperger, Christian & de la Croix, David, 1993. "Bargaining and equilibrium unemployment : Narrowing the gap between New Keynesian and 'disequilibrium' theories," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 163-190, May.
    13. Hubert Kempf, 1990. "Externalités et contrats salariaux," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 92(1), pages 51-60.
    14. Oswald, Andrew J, 1985. " The Economic Theory of Trade Unions: An Introductory Survey," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 87(2), pages 160-193.
    15. Russell Cooper & Andrew John, 1988. "Coordinating Coordination Failures in Keynesian Models," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 103(3), pages 441-463.
    16. SNEESSENS, Henri R. & SHADMAN-MEHTA, Fatemeh, 1994. "Real Wages, Skill Mismatch and Unemployment Persistence," CORE Discussion Papers 1994050, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
    17. Andersen, Torben M. & Christensen, Michael, 1989. "Relative wages and employment fluctuations," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 477-492.
    18. Dixon, Huw David, 1988. "Unions, Oligopoly and the Natural Range of Employment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 98(393), pages 1127-1147, December.
    19. Jacobson, Tor & Ohlsson, Henry, 1994. "Long-Run Relations between Private and Public Sector Wages in Sweden," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 19(3), pages 343-360.
    20. Holmlund, B. & Ohlsson, H., 1990. "Wage Linkages Between Private and Public Sectors," Papers 1990t, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
    21. Bhaskar, V, 1990. "Wage Relativities and the Natural Range of Unemployment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 100(400), pages 60-66, Supplemen.
    22. Oswald, Andrew J, 1979. "Wage Determination in an Economy with Many Trade Unions," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 31(3), pages 369-385, November.
    23. Gylfason, Thorvaldur & Lindbeck, Assar, 1984. "Union Rivalry and Wages: An Oligopolistic Approach," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 51(202), pages 129-139, May.
    24. Robert J. Flanagan, 1976. "Wage Interdependence in Unionized Labor Markets," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 7(3), pages 635-682.
    25. Fethke, Gary & Policano, Andrew, 1984. "Wage contingencies, the pattern of negotiation and aggregate implications of alternative contract structures," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 151-170, September.
    26. Barth, Erling, 1991. "Disagreement Points in Wage Bargaining," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt2m9228d4, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
    27. Calvo, Guillermo A., 1983. "Staggered prices in a utility-maximizing framework," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 383-398, September.
    28. McDonald, Ian M & Solow, Robert M, 1981. "Wage Bargaining and Employment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(5), pages 896-908, December.
    29. Nickell, Stephen & Wadhwani, Sushil, 1988. "Unions, wages and employment : Tests based on U.K. firm-level data," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(2-3), pages 727-733, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Pekka Ilmakunnas & Vesa Kanniainen, 2001. "Entrepreneurship, Economic Risks, and Risk Insurance in the Welfare State: Results with OECD Data 1978-93," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 2(3), pages 195-218, August.
    2. Kanniainen, V. & Leppamaki, M., 2000. "Entrepreneurship in a Unionised Economy," University of Helsinki, Department of Economics 484, Department of Economics.
    3. Michele Cincera & Lydia Greunz & Jean-Luc Guyot & Olivier Lohest, 2006. "Capital humain et processus de création d'entreprise: le cas des primo-créateurs wallons," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 49(2).
    4. Rietveld, Cornelius A. & Hessels, Jolanda & van der Zwan, Peter, 2015. "The stature of the self-employed and its relation with earnings and satisfaction," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 17(C), pages 59-74.
    5. Grilo, I. & Thurik, A.R., 2004. "Determinants Of Entrepreneurship In Europe," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2004-106-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    6. Cornelius A. Rietveld & Jolanda Hessels & Peter van der Zwan, 2014. "The Stature of the Self-employed and its Premium," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 14-109/VII, Tinbergen Institute.
    7. Daniel Lechmann & Claus Schnabel, 2014. "Are the self-employed really jacks-of-all-trades? Testing the assumptions and implications of Lazear’s theory of entrepreneurship with German data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(1), pages 59-76, January.
    8. Marco Caliendo & Jens Hogenacker & Steffen Künn & Frank Wießner, 2015. "Subsidized start-ups out of unemployment: a comparison to regular business start-ups," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 165-190, June.
    9. Lindh, Thomas & Ohlsson, Henry, 1998. "Self-Employment and Wealth Inequality," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 44(1), pages 25-42, March.
    10. Sergio de Nardis & Massimo Mancini & Carmine Pappalardo, 2003. "Regolazione del mercato del lavoro e crescita dimensionale delle imprese: Una verifica sull'effetto soglia dei 15 dipendenti," ISAE Working Papers 38, ISTAT - Italian National Institute of Statistics - (Rome, ITALY).
    11. Lindh, Thomas & Ohlsson, Henry, 1996. "Self-Employment and Windfall Gains: Evidence from the Swedish Lottery," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(439), pages 1515-1526, November.
    12. Howard J. Wall & Yannis Georgellis, 2000. "What makes a region entrepreneurial? Evidence from Britain," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 34(3), pages 385-403.
    13. Lechmann, Daniel S. J., 2013. "Can working conditions explain the return-to-entrepreneurship puzzle?," Discussion Papers 86, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.
    14. Peter Ericson & Johan Fall, 2011. "Taxation of closely held corporations – efficiency aspects," International Journal of Microsimulation, International Microsimulation Association, vol. 4(2), pages 27-40.
    15. André van Stel & Roy Thurik & Sander Wennekers & Niels Noorderhaven, 2004. "The role of dissatisfaction and per capita income in explaining self-employment across 15 European countries," Scales Research Reports N200407, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    16. Eduardo Lora & Mauricio Olivera, 1998. "Macro Policy and Employment Problems in Latin America," Research Department Publications 4116, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    17. Niels G. Noorderhaven & Sander Wennekers & Geert Hofstede & A. Roy Thurik & Ralph E. Wildeman, 1999. "Self-Employment out of Dissatisfaction: An International Study," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 99-089/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    18. Maude Toussaint-Comeau, 2005. "Do enclaves matter in immigrants’ self-employment decision?," Working Paper Series WP-05-23, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    19. repec:cii:cepiei:2014-q2-138-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Liliana Sousa, 2013. "Community Determinants Of Immigrant Self-Employment: Human Capital Spillovers And Ethnic Enclaves," Working Papers 13-21, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
    21. Eduardo Lora & Mauricio Olivera, 1998. "Políticas macro y problemas del empleo en América Latina," Research Department Publications 4117, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    22. Dongxu Wu & Zhongmin Wu, 2015. "Intergenerational links, gender differences, and determinants of self-employment," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 42(3), pages 400-414, August.
    23. Sander Wennekers, 2006. "Entrepreneurship at Country Level : Economic and Non-Economic Determinants," Scales Research Reports R200602, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    24. Edvard Johansson, 2000. "Self-employment and the predicted earnings differential - evidence from Finland," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 13(1), pages 45-55, Spring.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:jecsur:v:7:y:1993:i:4:p:367-97. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing) or (Christopher F. Baum). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.