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What determines entrepreneurial clusters?

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  • Luigi Guiso
  • Fabiano Schivardi

Abstract

We contrast two potential explanations of the substantial di¤erences in entrepreneurial activity observed across geographical areas: entry costs and external effects. We extend the Lucas model of entrepreneurship to allow for heterogeneous entry costs and for externalities that shift the distribution of entrepreneurial talents. We show that these assumptions have opposite predictions on the relation between entrepreneurial activity and .rm level TFP: with di¤erent entry costs, in areas with more entrepreneurs firms' average productivity should be lower and vice versa. We test these implications on a sample of Italian firms and unambiguously reject the entry costs explanation in favor of the externalities one. We also investigate the sources of external e¤ects, finding robust evidence that learning externalities are an important determinant of cross-sectional differences in entrepreneurial activity.

Suggested Citation

  • Luigi Guiso & Fabiano Schivardi, 2007. "What determines entrepreneurial clusters?," Economics Working Papers ECO2007/48, European University Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:eui:euiwps:eco2007/48
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    Cited by:

    1. Jacques Pelkmans & Andrea Renda, "undated". "Does EU Regulation Hinder or Stimulate Innovation?," IRMO Occasional Papers 5, Institute for Development and International Relations, Zagreb.
    2. Ehrl, Philipp, 2013. "Agglomeration economies with consistent productivity estimates," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(5), pages 751-763.
    3. Luigi Guiso & Aldo Rustichini, 2011. "What drives women out of entrepreneurship? The joint role of testosterone and culture," EIEF Working Papers Series 1102, Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF), revised Jan 2011.
    4. Di Addario, Sabrina & Vuri, Daniela, 2010. "Entrepreneurship and market size. The case of young college graduates in Italy," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 848-858, October.
    5. Brunello, Giorgio & Langella, Monica, 2014. "Local Agglomeration, Entrepreneurship and the Great Recession: Evidence from Italian Industrial Districts," IZA Discussion Papers 8331, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina, 2009. "Entrepreneurship and Reforms in Developing Countries," WIDER Working Paper Series 004, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    7. Silvia Ardagna & Annamaria Lusardi, 2010. "Explaining International Differences in Entrepreneurship: The Role of Individual Characteristics and Regulatory Constraints," NBER Chapters,in: International Differences in Entrepreneurship, pages 17-62 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Angela Cipollone & Paolo E. Giordani, 2015. "Market Frictions in Entrepreneurial Innovation: Theory and Evidence," Working Papers CELEG 1505, Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, LUISS Guido Carli.
    9. Di Addario, Sabrina, 2011. "Job search in thick markets," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 303-318, May.
    10. Luigi Guiso & Luigi Pistaferri & Fabiano Schivardi, 2015. "Learning Entrepreneurship From Other Entrepreneurs?," NBER Working Papers 21775, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. M. Pitzalis & I. Sulis & M. Porcu, 2008. "Differences of Cultural Capital among Students in Transition to University. Some First Survey Evidences," Working Paper CRENoS 200805, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia.
    12. Tavassoli, Sam & Trippl, Michaela, 2017. "The Impact of Ethnic Communities on Immigrant Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Sweden," Papers in Innovation Studies 2017/17, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
    13. I. Sulis & M. Porcu, 2008. "Assessing the Effectiveness of a Stochastic Regression Imputation Method for Ordered Categorical Data," Working Paper CRENoS 200804, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia.
    14. Iranzo Sancho, Susana, 2017. "Immigrants and Entrepreneurship: a Road for Talent or Just the Only Road?," Working Papers 2072/306519, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
    15. G. Marletto, 2007. "Crossing The Alps: Three Transport Policy Options," Working Paper CRENoS 200712, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia.
    16. Emil PAPAZOV, 2011. "The Role of Entrepreneurship for Cluster Formation in the Economy," REVISTA DE MANAGEMENT COMPARAT INTERNATIONAL/REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL COMPARATIVE MANAGEMENT, Faculty of Management, Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania, vol. 12(4), pages 839-846, October.
    17. Pelkmans, Jacques & Renda, Andrea, 2014. "Does EU regulation hinder or stimulate innovation?," CEPS Papers 9822, Centre for European Policy Studies.
    18. Ferrante, Francesco & Ruiu, Gabiele, 2014. "Entrepreneurship. How important are institutions and culturally-based prior beliefs?," MPRA Paper 41915, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Fernanda Llussa, 2011. "Determinants of Entrepreneurship: Are Women Different?," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp555, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
    20. Mina Baliamoune-Lutz, 2008. "On Growth and Development," ICER Working Papers 13-2008, ICER - International Centre for Economic Research.
    21. Silvia Ardagna & Annamaria Lusardi, 2009. "Where does regulation hurt? Evidence from new businesses across countries," NBER Working Papers 14747, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    22. OA Carboni & G. Medda, 2007. "Government Size and the Composition of Public Spending in a Neoclassical Growth Model," Working Paper CRENoS 200701, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia.
    23. Giuseppe Croce & Edoardo Di Porto & Emanuela Ghignoni & Andrea Ricci, 2013. "Employer education, agglomeration and workplace training: poaching vs knowledge spillovers," Working Papers 162, University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Public Economics.

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    Keywords

    Entrepreneurship; clustering; agglomeration economies;

    JEL classification:

    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
    • D62 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Externalities
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand

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