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Deregulation, Misallocation, and Size: Evidence from India

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  • Laura Alfaro
  • Anusha Chari

Abstract

This paper examines the impact of the deregulation of compulsory industrial licensing in India on firm-size dynamics and the reallocation of resources within industries over time. Following deregulation, we find that the extent of resource misallocation declines and a considerable thickening of the left-hand tail of the firm-size distribution suggesting a significant increase in the number of small firms. However, the dominance and growth of large incumbents remains unchallenged. Quantile regressions reveal that the distributional effects of deregulation on firm size are significantly non-linear. The size distribution we observe--namely, a large number of small firms and a small number of large firms--can be characterized as the "missing middle" in Indian manufacturing and suggests that small firms may continue to face constraints in their attempts to grow.

Suggested Citation

  • Laura Alfaro & Anusha Chari, 2012. "Deregulation, Misallocation, and Size: Evidence from India," NBER Working Papers 18650, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:18650
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    1. Philippe Aghion & Robin Burgess & Stephen J. Redding & Fabrizio Zilibotti, 2008. "The Unequal Effects of Liberalization: Evidence from Dismantling the License Raj in India," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(4), pages 1397-1412, September.
    2. Marianne Bertrand & Paras Mehta & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2002. "Ferreting out Tunneling: An Application to Indian Business Groups," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(1), pages 121-148.
    3. Olivier Blanchard & Francesco Giavazzi, 2003. "Macroeconomic Effects of Regulation and Deregulation in Goods and Labor Markets," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(3), pages 879-907.
    4. Alberto Alesina & Silvia Ardagna & Giuseppe Nicoletti & Fabio Schiantarelli, 2005. "Regulation And Investment," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(4), pages 791-825, June.
    5. Chamarbagwala, Rubiana & Sharma, Gunjan, 2011. "Industrial de-licensing, trade liberalization, and skill upgrading in India," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(2), pages 314-336, November.
    6. Richard Ericson & Ariel Pakes, 1995. "Markov-Perfect Industry Dynamics: A Framework for Empirical Work," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 62(1), pages 53-82.
    7. Jeffrey R. Campbell & Hugo A. Hopenhayn, 2005. "Market Size Matters," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(1), pages 1-25, March.
    8. Ricardo J. Caballero & Mohamad L. Hammour, 1996. "On the Timing and Efficiency of Creative Destruction," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(3), pages 805-852.
    9. Marcus Asplund & Volker Nocke, 2006. "Firm Turnover in Imperfectly Competitive Markets -super-1," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 73(2), pages 295-327.
    10. Chari, Anusha & Gupta, Nandini, 2008. "Incumbents and protectionism: The political economy of foreign entry liberalization," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(3), pages 633-656, June.
    11. A. V. Chari, 2011. "Identifying the Aggregate Productivity Effects of Entry and Size Restrictions: An Empirical Analysis of License Reform in India," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 3(2), pages 66-96, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Christine Greenhalgh, 2016. "Science, technology, innovation and IP in India: new directions and prospects," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 49(2), pages 113-138, August.
    2. K.V. Ramaswamy, 2016. "Size dependent tax incentives, threshold effects and horizontal subcontracting in Indian manufacturing: Evidence from factory and firm-level panel data sets," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2016-007, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
    3. Chetan Ghate & Gerhard Glomm & Jialu Liu Streeter, 2016. "Sectoral Infrastructure Investments in an Unbalanced Growing Economy: The Case of Potential Growth in India," Asian Development Review, MIT Press, vol. 33(2), pages 144-166, September.
    4. Shenoy, Ajay, 2017. "Market failures and misallocation," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 65-80.
    5. Leslie A. Martin & Shanthi Nataraj & Ann E. Harrison, 2017. "In with the Big, Out with the Small: Removing Small-Scale Reservations in India," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 107(2), pages 354-386, February.
    6. repec:bla:pacecr:v:22:y:2017:i:4:p:554-584 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Ghani,Syed Ejaz & Kerr,William Robert & Segura,Alex, 2015. "Informal tradables and the employment growth of Indian manufacturing," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7206, The World Bank.
    8. repec:oup:wbecrv:v:30:y:2017:i:supplement_1:p:s2-s15. is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F43 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Economic Growth of Open Economies
    • G31 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Capital Budgeting; Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies
    • G38 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • L10 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - General
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • O14 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology

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