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Banking Deregulations, Financing Constraints, and Firm Entry Size

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  • William R. Kerr
  • Ramana Nanda

Abstract

We examine the effect of U.S. branch banking deregulations on the entry size of new firms, using micro-data from the U.S. Census Bureau. We find that the average entry size for startups did not change following the deregulations. However, among firms that survived at least four years, a greater proportion of firms entered either at their maximum size or closer to the maximum size in the first year. The magnitude of these effects were small compared to the much larger changes in entry rates of small firms following the reforms. Our results highlight that this large-scale entry at the extensive margin can obscure the more subtle intensive margin effects of changes in financing constraints. (JEL: E44, G21, L26, L43, M13) (c) 2010 by the European Economic Association.

Suggested Citation

  • William R. Kerr & Ramana Nanda, 2010. "Banking Deregulations, Financing Constraints, and Firm Entry Size," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 8(2-3), pages 582-593, 04-05.
  • Handle: RePEc:tpr:jeurec:v:8:y:2010:i:2-3:p:582-593
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Jith Jayaratne & Philip E. Strahan, 1996. "The Finance-Growth Nexus: Evidence from Bank Branch Deregulation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(3), pages 639-670.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kandilov, Ivan T. & Leblebicioğlu, Aslı & Petkova, Neviana, 2017. "Cross-border mergers and acquisitions: The importance of local credit and source country finance," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 288-318.
    2. Alex Coad & Julian Frankish & Paul Nightingale & Richard Roberts, 2014. "Business experience and start-up size: Buying more lottery tickets next time around?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 43(3), pages 529-547, October.
    3. Jarkko Harju & Tuomas Kosonen, 2012. "The Impact of Tax Incentives on the Economic Activity of Entrepreneurs," Working Papers 1220, Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation.
    4. Kerr, William R. & Nanda, Ramana, 2009. "Democratizing entry: Banking deregulations, financing constraints, and entrepreneurship," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(1), pages 124-149, October.
    5. repec:diw:diwfin:diwfin05020 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Glaeser, Edward L. & Kerr, William R. & Ponzetto, Giacomo A.M., 2010. "Clusters of entrepreneurship," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 150-168, January.
    7. Marco Da Rin & Marina Di Giacomo & Alessandro Sembenelli, 2010. "Corporate Taxation and the Size of New Firms: Evidence from Europe," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 8(2-3), pages 606-616, 04-05.
    8. William R. Kerr & Ramana Nanda, 2009. "Financing Constraints and Entrepreneurship," Harvard Business School Working Papers 10-013, Harvard Business School.
    9. Da Rin, M. & Penas, M.F., 2015. "Venture Capital and Innovation Strategies," Discussion Paper 2015-009, Tilburg University, Tilburg Law and Economic Center.
    10. Nicola Cetorelli, 2014. "Surviving Credit Market Competition," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 52(1), pages 320-340, January.
    11. repec:zbw:zewexp:161820 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Steffen Andersen & Kasper Meisner Nielsen, 2012. "Ability or Finances as Constraints on Entrepreneurship? Evidence from Survival Rates in a Natural Experiment," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(12), pages 3684-3710.
    13. Anindo Sarker & Bulent Unel, 2017. "The Impact of Bank Expansion on Self-Employed Business Owners: Evidence from US States," Departmental Working Papers 2017-06, Department of Economics, Louisiana State University.
    14. repec:zbw:zewexp:161819 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Amore, Mario Daniele & Schneider, Cédric & Žaldokas, Alminas, 2013. "Credit supply and corporate innovation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(3), pages 835-855.
    16. Thomas Astebro & Holger Herz & Ramana Nanda & Roberto A. Weber, 2014. "Seeking the Roots of Entrepreneurship: Insights from Behavioral Economics," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 28(3), pages 49-70, Summer.
    17. Peter Huber & Harald Oberhofer & Michael Pfaffermayr, 2014. "Job creation and the intra-distribution dynamics of the firm size distribution," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(1), pages 171-197, February.
    18. Olena Havrylchyk, 2010. "Foreign Bank Presence and its Effect on Firm Entry and Exit in Transition Economies," Working Papers 2010-10, CEPII research center.
    19. Havrylchyk, Olena, 2012. "The effect of foreign bank presence on firm entry and exit in transition economies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 1710-1721.
    20. Ant Bozkaya & William R. Kerr, 2009. "Labor Regulations and European Private Equity," Working Papers CEB 09-055.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    21. David H. Autor & William R. Kerr & Adriana D. Kugler, 2007. "Do Employment Protections Reduce Productivity? Evidence from U.S. States," NBER Working Papers 12860, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    22. Meghana Ayyagari & Asli Demirguc-Kunt & Vojislav Maksimovic, 2017. "What Determines Entrepreneurial Outcomes in Emerging Markets? The Role of Initial Conditions," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 30(7), pages 2478-2522.
    23. Silvia Ardagna & Annamaria Lusardi, 2010. "Heterogeneity in the Effect of Regulation on Entrepreneurship and Entry Size," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 8(2-3), pages 594-605, 04-05.
    24. Govori, Fadil, 2014. "The development of capital market and its impact on providing alternative sources of business financing: Empirical analysis," MPRA Paper 58189, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    25. Teng Sun, Stephen & Yannelis, Constantine, 2013. "Credit Constraints and Demand for Higher Education: Evidence from Financial Deregulation," MPRA Paper 48726, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • L43 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups

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