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Assessing the impact of individual and context factors on the entrepreneurial process. A cross-country multilevel approach

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  • Ivano Dileo

    (University of Bari Aldo Moro)

  • Thaís García Pereiro

    (Catholic University “Our Lady of Good Counsel”)

Abstract

This paper attempts to fill the gap on the existing entrepreneurship literature by empirically testing the influence of two groups of individual-level factors (socio-economic, demographic and perceptual characteristics) and two groups of country-level factors (both formal and informal institutional measures and macroeconomic variables) on three stages of the entrepreneurial process. We analyze the interplay between individual and context factors in nascent, young and established entrepreneurs across 49 different countries, mixing data from different sources and applying multilevel binary logistic regression models. Our results show that entrepreneurial activities are male headed, irrespectively of the entrepreneurial stage of their activities, and that highly-educated entrepreneurs are more oriented to start up new ventures. The existence of a wider network of people involved in entrepreneurship contributes to updating information on new markets and opportunities, leading to a more accurate entrepreneurial decision. The level of development of a country constitutes an important determinant of entrepreneurship but also moderates the relationship between entrepreneurship and institutional factors. In more developed countries, individual characteristics may be still determinant factors shaping the decision to become an entrepreneur, although their magnitude may depend on the stage of the entrepreneurial process. Finally, the key to entrepreneurship for both more and less developed countries seems to be their fiscal systems: a fair tax system that actively fights tax evasion and corruption seems to be essential to reducing the economic pressure associated with the creation and survival of ventures.

Suggested Citation

  • Ivano Dileo & Thaís García Pereiro, 2019. "Assessing the impact of individual and context factors on the entrepreneurial process. A cross-country multilevel approach," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 15(4), pages 1393-1441, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:intemj:v:15:y:2019:i:4:d:10.1007_s11365-018-0528-1
    DOI: 10.1007/s11365-018-0528-1
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