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Employment Growth and Entrepreneurial Activity in Cities

  • Zoltan J. Acs


  • Catherine Armington

Recent theories of economic growth have stressed the role of externalities in generating growth. Using data from the Census Bureau that tracks all employers in the whole U.S. private sector economy, we examine the impact of these externalities, as measured by entrepreneurial activity, on employment growth in Local Market Areas. We find that differences in levels of entrepreneurial activity, diversity among geographically proximate industries, and the extent of human capital are positively associated with variation in growth rates, but the manufacturing sector appears to be an exception.

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Paper provided by Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group in its series Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy with number 2004-13.

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Length: 47 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:esi:egpdis:2004-13
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  1. Zoltan J. Acs & Felix R. FitzRoy & Ian Smith, 1999. "High-Technology Employment and R&D in Cities: Heterogeneity vs Specialization," CRIEFF Discussion Papers 9920, Centre for Research into Industry, Enterprise, Finance and the Firm.
  2. Zoltan J. Acs & Attila Varga, 2004. "Entrepreneurship, Agglomeration and Technological Change," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-06, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  3. Geroski, P. A., 1995. "What do we know about entry?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 421-440, December.
  4. Feldman, Maryann P. & Audretsch, David B., 1999. "Innovation in cities:: Science-based diversity, specialization and localized competition," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 409-429, February.
  5. Paul M Romer, 1999. "Endogenous Technological Change," Levine's Working Paper Archive 2135, David K. Levine.
  6. Carree, Martin & Klomp, Luuk, 1996. "Small Business and Job Creation: A Comment," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 8(4), pages 317-22, August.
  7. Krugman, Paul, 1991. "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(3), pages 483-99, June.
  8. Zoltan J. Acs & Bo Carlsson & Pontus Braunerhjelm & David B. Audretsch, . "The Missing Link," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-08, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  9. Glaeser, Edward Ludwig & Kallal, Hedi D. & Scheinkman, Jose A. & Shleifer, Andrei, 1992. "Growth in Cities," Scholarly Articles 3451309, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  10. Catherine Armington & Zoltan Acs, 2002. "The Determinants of Regional Variation in New Firm Formation," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(1), pages 33-45.
  11. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-37, October.
  12. Simon, Curtis J. & Nardinelli, Clark, 2002. "Human capital and the rise of American cities, 1900-1990," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 59-96, January.
  13. Wennekers, Sander & Thurik, Roy, 1999. "Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 27-55, August.
  14. David Audretsch & Michael Fritsch, 2002. "Growth Regimes over Time and Space," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(2), pages 113-124.
  15. Steven J. Davis & John C. Haltiwanger & Scott Schuh, 1998. "Job Creation and Destruction," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262540932, December.
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