IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/kap/sbusec/v42y2014i4p685-701.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

National culture, entrepreneurship and economic development: different patterns across the European Union

Author

Listed:
  • Francisco Liñán
  • José Fernandez-Serrano

Abstract

The aim of this paper is double. Firstly, it contributes to identifying the specific role of national culture as a variable that helps explain the level of economic development and reinforces the effect of entrepreneurship on the income level. Secondly, a deeper understanding of these relations in the case of the European Union is sought. In this study, data from two different sources have been used. The Schwartz Value Survey measures seven cultural orientations that are then grouped into three bipolar dimensions (embeddedness vs. autonomy, hierarchy vs. egalitarianism and mastery vs. harmony). The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor provides information regarding entrepreneurial activity. Using linear regression analysis, cultural and entrepreneurial variables are able to classify countries according to their development level, explaining over 60 % of the variance in Gross Domestic Product per capita. The role of culture is complex, with geographical elements being significantly relevant. In the case of Europe, some common elements conform what could be called “a European culture”: autonomy and egalitarianism clearly predominate over embeddedness and hierarchy, while harmony tends to prevail over mastery. Nevertheless, four well-defined groups of countries within the European Union emerge. Central and Northern Europe is closer to this European stereotypical culture, while English-speaking countries, Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean area exhibit their own differentiating elements each. These differences also exist with regard to entrepreneurial activity (overall Total Entrepreneurial Activity, necessity and opportunity-driven activity). Each of the four regional entrepreneurial cultures is characterized by a different entrepreneurial dynamics that may be plausibly explained by culture and income. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Suggested Citation

  • Francisco Liñán & José Fernandez-Serrano, 2014. "National culture, entrepreneurship and economic development: different patterns across the European Union," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 685-701, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:42:y:2014:i:4:p:685-701
    DOI: 10.1007/s11187-013-9520-x
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s11187-013-9520-x
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1007/s11187-013-9520-x?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. André Stel & Martin Carree & Roy Thurik, 2005. "The Effect of Entrepreneurial Activity on National Economic Growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 311-321, February.
    2. Sam Youl Lee & Richard Florida & Zoltan Acs, 2004. "Creativity and Entrepreneurship: A Regional Analysis of New Firm Formation," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(8), pages 879-891.
    3. M.A. Carree & A.R. Thurik, 2008. "The Lag Structure of the Impact of Business Ownership on Economic Performance in OECD Countries," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 30(1), pages 101-110, January.
    4. André Stel & David Storey & A. Thurik, 2007. "The Effect of Business Regulations on Nascent and Young Business Entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 171-186, March.
    5. Lee, Sang M. & Peterson, Suzanne J., 2000. "Culture, entrepreneurial orientation, and global competitiveness," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 401-416, January.
    6. André van Stel & Gerrit de Wit & Roy Thurik & Sander Wennekers & Paul D. Reynolds, 2003. "Explaining nascent entrepreneurship across countries," Scales Research Reports N200301, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    7. Sander Wennekers & Andre van Stel & Niels Noorderhaven & Roy Thurik, 2004. "The Role Of Dissatisfaction And Per Capita Income In Explaining Self-Employment Across 15 European Countries," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-11, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
    8. Adriaan Van Stel & David Storey, 2004. "The Link between Firm Births and Job Creation: Is there a Upas Tree Effect?," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(8), pages 893-909.
    9. Thomas Gries & Wim Naudé, 2010. "Entrepreneurship and structural economic transformation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 13-29, January.
    10. Sander Wennekers & Roy Thurik & André Stel & Niels Noorderhaven, 2010. "Uncertainty Avoidance and the Rate of Business Ownership Across 21 OECD Countries, 1976–2004," Springer Books, in: Andreas Freytag & Roy Thurik (ed.), Entrepreneurship and Culture, chapter 0, pages 271-299, Springer.
    11. Sander Wennekers & André Stel & Roy Thurik & Paul Reynolds, 2008. "Nascent entrepreneurship and the level of economic development," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 325-325, March.
    12. Niels Bosma & Veronique Schutjens, 2011. "Understanding regional variation in entrepreneurial activity and entrepreneurial attitude in Europe," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 47(3), pages 711-742, December.
    13. Christian Bjørnskov & Nicolai Foss, 2010. "Economic Freedom and Entrepreneurial Activity: Some Cross-Country Evidence," Springer Books, in: Andreas Freytag & Roy Thurik (ed.), Entrepreneurship and Culture, chapter 0, pages 201-225, Springer.
    14. José Fernández-Serrano & Isidoro Romero, 2013. "Entrepreneurial quality and regional development: Characterizing SME sectors in low income areas," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 92(3), pages 495-513, August.
    15. Raymond Fisman & Virginia Sarria Allende, 2010. "Regulation of entry and the distortion of industrial organization," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 13, pages 91-111, May.
    16. Michael Fritsch & Alexandra Schroeter, 2011. "Why does the effect of new business formation differ across regions?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 36(4), pages 383-400, May.
    17. Mueller, Stephen L. & Thomas, Anisya S., 2001. "Culture and entrepreneurial potential: A nine country study of locus of control and innovativeness," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 51-75, January.
    18. Simon C. Parker & Martin T. Robson, 2004. "Explaining International Variations in Self-Employment: Evidence from a Panel of OECD Countries," Southern Economic Journal, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 71(2), pages 287-301, October.
    19. McGrath, Rita Gunther & MacMillan, Ian C. & Yang, Elena Ai-Yuan & Tsai, William, 1992. "Does culture endure, or is it malleable? Issues for entrepreneurial economic development," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(6), pages 441-458, November.
    20. Lowell W. Busenitz & Chung-Ming Lau, 1996. "A Cross-Cultural Cognitive Model of New Venture Creation," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 20(4), pages 25-40, July.
    21. Etzioni, Amitai, 1987. "Entrepreneurship, adaptation and legitimation : A macro-behavioral perspective," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 175-189, June.
    22. Roy Thurik & Marcus Dejardin, 2012. "Entrepreneurship and Culture," Post-Print halshs-00943684, HAL.
    23. Jun Ma & Zelimir William Todorovic, 2012. "Understanding the role of entrepreneurial quality and national culture on the economic development," International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 16(3), pages 299-313.
    24. Shane, Scott, 1993. "Cultural influences on national rates of innovation," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 59-73, January.
    25. Boyan Jovanovic, 1993. "The Diversification of Production," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 24(1 Microec), pages 197-247.
    26. Niels Noorderhaven & Roy Thurik & Sander Wennekers & André van Stel, 2004. "The Role of Dissatisfaction and per Capita Income in Explaining Self–Employment across 15 European Countries," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 28(5), pages 447-466, September.
    27. Catherine Armington & Zoltan Acs, 2002. "The Determinants of Regional Variation in New Firm Formation," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(1), pages 33-45.
    28. María-José Pinillos & Luisa Reyes, 2011. "Relationship between individualist–collectivist culture and entrepreneurial activity: evidence from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 37(1), pages 23-37, July.
    29. Ute Stephan & Lorraine M Uhlaner, 2010. "Performance-based vs socially supportive culture: A cross-national study of descriptive norms and entrepreneurship," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 41(8), pages 1347-1364, October.
    30. Rolf Sternberg & Sander Wennekers, 2005. "Determinants and Effects of New Business Creation Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 193-203, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. José Fernández-Serrano & Vanessa Berbegal & Francisco Velasco & Alfonso Expósito, 2018. "Efficient entrepreneurial culture: a cross-country analysis of developed countries," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 105-127, March.
    2. David Urbano & Sebastian Aparicio & Victor Querol, 2016. "Social progress orientation and innovative entrepreneurship: an international analysis," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 26(5), pages 1033-1066, December.
    3. Thai, Mai Thi Thanh & Turkina, Ekaterina, 2014. "Macro-level determinants of formal entrepreneurship versus informal entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 490-510.
    4. Ratan J. S. Dheer, 2017. "Cross-national differences in entrepreneurial activity: role of culture and institutional factors," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 48(4), pages 813-842, April.
    5. María-José Pinillos & Luisa Reyes, 2011. "Relationship between individualist–collectivist culture and entrepreneurial activity: evidence from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 37(1), pages 23-37, July.
    6. Pekka Stenholm & Zoltán J. Ács & Robert Wuebker, 2015. "Exploring country-level institutional arrangements on the rate and type of entrepreneurial activity," Chapters, in: Global Entrepreneurship, Institutions and Incentives, chapter 20, pages 387-404, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    7. Roy Thurik & Marcus Dejardin, 2012. "Entrepreneurship and Culture," Post-Print halshs-00943684, HAL.
    8. Claudia Álvarez & David Urbano & José Amorós, 2014. "GEM research: achievements and challenges," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 445-465, March.
    9. Calza, Francesco & Cannavale, Chiara & Zohoorian Nadali, Iman, 2020. "How do cultural values influence entrepreneurial behavior of nations? A behavioral reasoning approach," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 29(5).
    10. Rodrigues Brás Gonçalo & Soukiazis Elias, 2019. "The Determinants of Entrepreneurship at the Country Level: A Panel Data Approach," Entrepreneurship Research Journal, De Gruyter, vol. 9(4), pages 1-17, October.
    11. Erkko Autio & Saurav Pathak & Karl Wennberg, 2013. "Consequences of cultural practices for entrepreneurial behaviors," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 44(4), pages 334-362, May.
    12. Jolanda Hessels & Marco Gelderen & Roy Thurik, 2008. "Entrepreneurial aspirations, motivations, and their drivers," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 323-339, October.
    13. Yaron Zelekha & Gil Avnimelech & Eyal Sharabi, 2014. "Religious institutions and entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 747-767, April.
    14. Peter van der Zwan & Ingrid Verheul & Roy Thurik & Isabel Grilo, 2009. "Entrepreneurial Progress: Climbing the Entrepreneurial Ladder in Europe and the US," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 09-070/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 17 Mar 2010.
    15. Ivano Dileo & Thaís García Pereiro, 2019. "Assessing the impact of individual and context factors on the entrepreneurial process. A cross-country multilevel approach," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 15(4), pages 1393-1441, December.
    16. Block, J.H. & Thurik, A.R. & van der Zwan, P.W. & Walter, S., 2010. "Business Takeover or New Venture? Individual and Environmental Determinants from a Cross-Country Study," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2010-042-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    17. Song, Changhyeon & Park, Kyung Min & Kim, Yeonbae, 2020. "Socio-cultural factors explaining technology-based entrepreneurial activity: Direct and indirect role of social security," Technology in Society, Elsevier, vol. 61(C).
    18. David Urbano & Sebastian Aparicio & David Audretsch, 2019. "Twenty-five years of research on institutions, entrepreneurship, and economic growth: what has been learned?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 53(1), pages 21-49, June.
    19. Kadri Arrak & Anneli Kaasa & Urmas Varblane, 2020. "Regional Cultural Context as a Determinant of Entrepreneurial Behaviour: The Case of Germany," Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Emerging Economies, Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India, vol. 29(1), pages 88-118, March.
    20. Bogatyreva, Karina & Edelman, Linda F. & Manolova, Tatiana S. & Osiyevskyy, Oleksiy & Shirokova, Galina, 2019. "When do entrepreneurial intentions lead to actions? The role of national culture," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 309-321.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Entrepreneurship; Cultural values; Economic development; European Union; A13; L26; R11; O52;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • A13 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - Relation of Economics to Social Values
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
    • O52 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Europe

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:42:y:2014:i:4:p:685-701. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.