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Entrepreneurship and Culture


  • Roy Thurik

    (Centre for Advanced Small Business Economics - Erasmus University Rotterdam)

  • Marcus Dejardin

    (Centre de recherches en Economie Régionale et Politique Economique - Facultés Universitaires Notre Dame de la Paix (FUNDP) - Namur)


The relative stability of differences in entrepreneurial activity across countries suggests that factors other than economic ones are at play (Freytag and Thurik, 2010). Cultural factors, as a subset of stable contextual factors, may play a role. In this paper, we give examples of various theories on the relationship between cultural values and entrepreneurship, providing both a conceptual basis and an empirical test.

Suggested Citation

  • Roy Thurik & Marcus Dejardin, 2012. "Entrepreneurship and Culture," Post-Print halshs-00943684, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-00943684
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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Andreas Freytag & Roy Thurik, 2007. "Entrepreneurship and its determinants in a cross-country setting," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 17(2), pages 117-131, April.
    2. Simeon Djankov & Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 2002. "The Regulation of Entry," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(1), pages 1-37.
    3. André Stel & Martin Carree & Roy Thurik, 2005. "The Effect of Entrepreneurial Activity on National Economic Growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 311-321, February.
    4. Blanchflower, David G., 2000. "Self-employment in OECD countries," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 471-505, September.
    5. Thurik, A. Roy & Carree, Martin A. & van Stel, André & Audretsch, David B., 2008. "Does self-employment reduce unemployment?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 673-686, November.
    6. Blanchflower, David G & Oswald, Andrew J, 1998. "What Makes an Entrepreneur?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 26-60, January.
    7. André Stel & David Storey & A. Thurik, 2007. "The Effect of Business Regulations on Nascent and Young Business Entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 171-186, March.
    8. Lee, Sang M. & Peterson, Suzanne J., 2000. "Culture, entrepreneurial orientation, and global competitiveness," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 401-416, January.
    9. Parker,Simon C., 2009. "The Economics of Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521728355, March.
    10. Sander Wennekers & Roy Thurik & André Stel & Niels Noorderhaven, 2007. "Uncertainty avoidance and the rate of business ownership across 21 OECD countries, 1976–2004," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 17(2), pages 133-160, April.
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    12. Sander Wennekers & André Stel & Roy Thurik & Paul Reynolds, 2008. "Nascent entrepreneurship and the level of economic development," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 325-325, March.
    13. Matthias Benz & Bruno S. Frey, 2008. "Being Independent is a Great Thing: Subjective Evaluations of Self-Employment and Hierarchy," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 75(298), pages 362-383, May.
    14. Benz, Matthias & Frey, Bruno S., 2008. "The value of doing what you like: Evidence from the self-employed in 23 countries," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 68(3-4), pages 445-455, December.
    15. Andre van Stel, "undated". "COMPENDIA: Harmonizing business ownership data across countries and over time," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-05, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
    16. Henrekson, Magnus & Sanandaji, Tino, 2011. "The interaction of entrepreneurship and institutions," Journal of Institutional Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(01), pages 47-75, March.
    17. Wennekers, Sander & Thurik, Roy, 1999. "Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 27-55, August.
    18. Baum, J. Robert & Olian, Judy D. & Erez, Miriam & Schnell, Eugene R. & Smith, Ken G. & Sims, Henry P. & Scully, Judith S. & Smith, Ken A., 1993. "Nationality and work role interactions: A cultural contrast of Israeli and U.S. entrepreneurs' versus managers' needs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(6), pages 499-512, November.
    19. Harry P Bowen & Dirk De Clercq, 2008. "Institutional context and the allocation of entrepreneurial effort," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 39(4), pages 768-768, June.
    20. Sander Wennekers, 2006. "Entrepreneurship at Country Level : Economic and Non-Economic Determinants," Scales Research Reports R200602, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    21. Baumol, William J., 1996. "Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive, and destructive," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 3-22, January.
    22. McGrath, Rita Gunther & MacMillan, Ian C., 1992. "More like each other than anyone else? A cross-cultural study of entrepreneurial perceptions," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 419-429, September.
    23. Parker,Simon C., 2009. "The Economics of Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521899604, March.
    24. Ute Stephan & Lorraine M Uhlaner, 2010. "Performance-based vs socially supportive culture: A cross-national study of descriptive norms and entrepreneurship," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 41(8), pages 1347-1364, October.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:kap:empiri:v:44:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s10663-016-9332-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Jean Bonnet, 2016. "From Knowledge to Innovation Economy: Developing Education and Creating Entrepreneurial Ecosystems," Economics Working Paper Archive (University of Rennes 1 & University of Caen) 2016-02, Center for Research in Economics and Management (CREM), University of Rennes 1, University of Caen and CNRS.
    3. Arjen Van Witteloostuijn & Marcus Dejardin & Julie Hermans & Dendi Ramdani, & Johanna Vanderstraeten & Jacqueline Brassey & Hendrik Slabbinck, 2015. "Fitting entrepreneurial, firm-level and environmental contingencies for better performance," Post-Print halshs-01379907, HAL.
    4. Francisco Liñán & José Fernandez-Serrano, 2014. "National culture, entrepreneurship and economic development: different patterns across the European Union," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 685-701, April.
    5. repec:mic:tmpjrn:v:13:y:2017:i:02:p:3-12 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. repec:gam:jsusta:v:9:y:2017:i:11:p:2001-:d:117300 is not listed on IDEAS

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