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The entrepreneurial ladder, gender, and regional development

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  • Peter Zwan
  • Ingrid Verheul
  • A. Thurik

Abstract

Gender differences at five levels of entrepreneurial engagement are explained using country effects while controlling for individual-level variables. We distinguish between individuals who have never considered starting up a business, those who are thinking about it, and nascent, young, and established entrepreneurs. We use a large international dataset that includes respondents from 32 European countries, three Asian countries, and the United States. Findings show that cross-country gender differences are largest in the first and final transitions of the entrepreneurial process. In particular, some European transition economies are characterized by relatively low propensities of women to convert start-up considerations into start-up activities and low survival rates of businesses started by women. Copyright The Author(s) 2012

Suggested Citation

  • Peter Zwan & Ingrid Verheul & A. Thurik, 2012. "The entrepreneurial ladder, gender, and regional development," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 627-643, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:39:y:2012:i:3:p:627-643
    DOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9334-7
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    3. Bradley, Samantha R. & Gicheva, Dora & Hassell, Lydia & Link, Albert N., 2013. "Gender Differences in Access to Private Investment Funding to Support the Development of New Technologies," UNCG Economics Working Papers 13-9, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
    4. Elvin Afandi & Majid Kermani, 2014. "Bridging the Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Europe," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp1074, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    5. Elisa Ughetto & Mariacristina Rossi & David Audretsch & Erik E. Lehmann, 2020. "Female entrepreneurship in the digital era," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 55(2), pages 305-312, August.
    6. Ana Iolanda Vodă & Nelu Florea, 2019. "Impact of Personality Traits and Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurial Intentions of Business and Engineering Students," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(4), pages 1-34, February.
    7. Werner Boente & Monika Jarosch, 2011. "Gender Differences in Competitiveness, Risk Tolerance, and other Personality Traits: Do they contribute to the Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship?," Schumpeter Discussion Papers sdp11012, Universitätsbibliothek Wuppertal, University Library.
    8. In Lee & Matthew Marvel, 2014. "Revisiting the entrepreneur gender–performance relationship: a firm perspective," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 769-786, April.
    9. Marios A. Pappas & Athanasios S. Drigas & Yannis Papagerasimou & Helen Dimitriou & Nadia Katsanou & Sofia Papakonstantinou & Zoi Karabatzaki, 2018. "Female Entrepreneurship and Employability in the Digital Era: The Case of Greece," Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(2), pages 1-15, May.
    10. Traikova, Diana & Mollers, Judith & Buchenrieder, Gertrud, 2012. "How Farmers Become Entrepreneurs - Prenatal Diagnostic of Rural Firms in Bulgaria," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126816, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    11. Brigitte Hoogendoorn & Peter Zwan & Roy Thurik, 2019. "Sustainable Entrepreneurship: The Role of Perceived Barriers and Risk," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 157(4), pages 1133-1154, July.
    12. Maresch, Daniela & Harms, Rainer & Kailer, Norbert & Wimmer-Wurm, Birgit, 2016. "The impact of entrepreneurship education on the entrepreneurial intention of students in science and engineering versus business studies university programs," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 172-179.
    13. Steven A. Brieger & Michael M. Gielnik, 2021. "Understanding the gender gap in immigrant entrepreneurship: a multi-country study of immigrants’ embeddedness in economic, social, and institutional contexts," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 56(3), pages 1007-1031, February.
    14. Traikova, Diana, 2013. "Determinants of non-farm entrepreneurial intentions in a transitional context: Evidence from rural Bulgaria," Studies on the Agricultural and Food Sector in Transition Economies, Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO), volume 72, number 72.
    15. Teresa Paiva & Maximiano Ribeiro & Paula Coutinho, 2020. "R&D Collaboration, Competitiveness Development, and Open Innovation in R&D," Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 6(4), pages 1-18, October.
    16. Werner Bönte & Monika Piegeler, 2013. "Gender gap in latent and nascent entrepreneurship: driven by competitiveness," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(4), pages 961-987, December.
    17. Lin Xiu & Morley Gunderson, 2021. "Does an Entrepreneurial Career Pay for Women in China?," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 59(1), pages 167-190, March.
    18. Tommaso Minola & Davide Donina & Michele Meoli, 2016. "Students climbing the entrepreneurial ladder: Does university internationalization pay off?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 565-587, October.
    19. André van Stel & Sander Wennekers & Jolanda Hessels & Peter van der Zwan, 2012. "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2011 The Netherlands," Scales Research Reports A201211, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    20. Dianne H. B. Welsh & Eugene Kaciak & Caroline Minialai, 2017. "The influence of perceived management skills and perceived gender discrimination in launch decisions by women entrepreneurs," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 1-33, March.
    21. Ivano Dileo & Thaís García Pereiro, 2019. "Assessing the impact of individual and context factors on the entrepreneurial process. A cross-country multilevel approach," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 15(4), pages 1393-1441, December.
    22. Luisa Fernanda Bernat & German Lambardi & Paola Palacios, 2017. "Determinants of the entrepreneurial gender gap in Latin America," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 48(3), pages 727-752, March.
    23. Jolanda Hessels & Brigitte Hoogendoorn & Peter van der Zwan & Nardo de Vries, 2013. "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor The Netherlands 2012," Scales Research Reports H201314, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    24. , Aisdl, 2017. "Problems and prospects of women entrepreneurship with special reference to MSMEs in the state of Gujarat," OSF Preprints u7jkb, Center for Open Science.
    25. Daniela Giménez & Andrea Calabrò, 2018. "The salient role of institutions in Women’s entrepreneurship: a critical review and agenda for future research," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 14(4), pages 857-882, December.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Entrepreneurship; Determinants; Gender; International; H10; J23; L26; M13; R12;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • H10 - Public Economics - - Structure and Scope of Government - - - General
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)

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