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The entrepreneurial ladder, gender, and regional development

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  • Peter Zwan

    ()

  • Ingrid Verheul

    ()

  • A. Thurik

    ()

Abstract

Gender differences at five levels of entrepreneurial engagement are explained using country effects while controlling for individual-level variables. We distinguish between individuals who have never considered starting up a business, those who are thinking about it, and nascent, young, and established entrepreneurs. We use a large international dataset that includes respondents from 32 European countries, three Asian countries, and the United States. Findings show that cross-country gender differences are largest in the first and final transitions of the entrepreneurial process. In particular, some European transition economies are characterized by relatively low propensities of women to convert start-up considerations into start-up activities and low survival rates of businesses started by women. Copyright The Author(s) 2012

Suggested Citation

  • Peter Zwan & Ingrid Verheul & A. Thurik, 2012. "The entrepreneurial ladder, gender, and regional development," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 627-643, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:39:y:2012:i:3:p:627-643
    DOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9334-7
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Elvin Afandi & Majid Kermani, 2014. "Bridging the Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Europe," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp1074, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    2. Werner Boente & Monika Jarosch, 2011. "Gender Differences in Competitiveness, Risk Tolerance, and other Personality Traits: Do they contribute to the Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship?," Schumpeter Discussion Papers sdp11012, Universitätsbibliothek Wuppertal, University Library.
    3. Tommaso Minola & Davide Donina & Michele Meoli, 2016. "Students climbing the entrepreneurial ladder: Does university internationalization pay off?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 565-587, October.
    4. repec:spr:intemj:v:13:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s11365-016-0421-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Maresch, Daniela & Harms, Rainer & Kailer, Norbert & Wimmer-Wurm, Birgit, 2016. "The impact of entrepreneurship education on the entrepreneurial intention of students in science and engineering versus business studies university programs," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 172-179.
    6. André van Stel & Sander Wennekers & Jolanda Hessels & Peter van der Zwan, 2012. "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2011 The Netherlands," Scales Research Reports A201211, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    7. Bradley, Samantha R. & Gicheva, Dora & Hassell, Lydia & Link, Albert N., 2013. "Gender Differences in Access to Private Investment Funding to Support the Development of New Technologies," UNCG Economics Working Papers 13-9, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
    8. In Lee & Matthew Marvel, 2014. "Revisiting the entrepreneur gender–performance relationship: a firm perspective," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 769-786, April.
    9. Traikova, Diana & Mollers, Judith & Buchenrieder, Gertrud, 2012. "How Farmers Become Entrepreneurs - Prenatal Diagnostic of Rural Firms in Bulgaria," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126816, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    10. Dora Gicheva & Albert Link, 2013. "Leveraging entrepreneurship through private investments: does gender matter?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(2), pages 199-210, February.
    11. Traikova, Diana, 2013. "Determinants of non-farm entrepreneurial intentions in a transitional context: Evidence from rural Bulgaria," Studies on the Agricultural and Food Sector in Transition Economies, Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO), volume 72, number 72.
    12. Werner Bönte & Monika Piegeler, 2013. "Gender gap in latent and nascent entrepreneurship: driven by competitiveness," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(4), pages 961-987, December.
    13. Dianne H. B. Welsh & Eugene Kaciak & Caroline Minialai, 2017. "The influence of perceived management skills and perceived gender discrimination in launch decisions by women entrepreneurs," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 1-33, March.
    14. Elvin Afandi & Majid Kermani & Fuad Mammadov, 2017. "Social capital and entrepreneurial process," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 685-716, September.
    15. repec:kap:sbusec:v:48:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s11187-016-9789-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Jolanda Hessels & Brigitte Hoogendoorn & Peter van der Zwan & Nardo de Vries, 2013. "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor The Netherlands 2012," Scales Research Reports H201314, EIM Business and Policy Research.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Entrepreneurship; Determinants; Gender; International; H10; J23; L26; M13; R12;

    JEL classification:

    • H10 - Public Economics - - Structure and Scope of Government - - - General
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)

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