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Entrepreneurial exit in real and imagined markets

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  • Roy Thurik
  • F. Stam
  • Peter van der Zwan

Abstract

Entrepreneurs exit their business due to selection pressures experienced in the market place, i.e. business failure. Next to this well known ex-post decision to exit, entrepreneurs select exantewhether they are willing to pursue an entrepreneurial career at all, or to give up theseentrepreneurial intentions. Hardly anything is known about the latter selection process in imagined markets that precedes the variety creation and selection process in real markets. This paper explores and explains the prevalence of these two selection processes using survey data on 20,000 individuals in 27 European countries and the US in 2007. We distinguish business failures from exit by sell-off. Results indicate that individuals in the US are less likely to exit imagined markets, and are more likely to have exited the real market (especially by selling their business) than Europeans. Individuals in a Corporatist welfare state regime have relatively high chances to exit imagined markets. Business owners in urban environments are more likely to fail, while individuals with a high risk tolerance, a high education and self-employed parents are less likely to exit in imagined as well as in real markets (via business failure). This study shows that exit in real and in imagined markets is differently affected by competition and institutions. These selection environments have differential effects on entrepreneurial aspirations and actions of individuals, and provide evidence for the dissimilar nature of exit in real and exit in imagined markets.

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  • Roy Thurik & F. Stam & Peter van der Zwan, 2007. "Entrepreneurial exit in real and imagined markets," Scales Research Reports H200720, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:eim:papers:h200720
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    Cited by:

    1. Peter van der Zwan & Ingrid Verheul & Roy Thurik & Isabel Grilo, 2009. "Entrepreneurial Progress: Climbing the Entrepreneurial Ladder in Europe and the US," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 09-070/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 17 Mar 2010.
    2. Calá, Carla Daniela, 2014. "Regional issues on firm entry and exit in argentina: core and peripheral regions," Nülan. Deposited Documents 2023, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Sociales, Centro de Documentación.
    3. André van Stel & Sander Wennekers & Jolanda Hessels & Chantal Hartog, 2011. "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2010 The Netherlands," Scales Research Reports A201108, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    4. van Gelderen, A.M. & Patel, B.P. & Thurik, A.R., 2009. "Encountered Problems and Outcome Status in Nascent Entrepreneurship," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2009-008-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    5. Jolanda Hessels & Isabel Grilo & Roy Thurik & Peter Zwan, 2011. "Entrepreneurial exit and entrepreneurial engagement," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 21(3), pages 447-471, August.
    6. Rui Baptista & Murat Karaöz & Joana Mendonça, 2014. "The impact of human capital on the early success of necessity versus opportunity-based entrepreneurs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 831-847, April.
    7. Jolanda Hessels & Peter van der Zwan, 2013. "Start-up motivation and (in)voluntary exit," Scales Research Reports H201309, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    8. Joern H. Block & Lennart Hoogerheide & Roy Thurik, 2009. "Education and Entrepreneurial Choice: An Instrumental Variables Analysis," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 09-088/4, Tinbergen Institute, revised 23 Nov 2010.
    9. Joern H. Block & Lennart Hoogerheide & Roy Thurik, 2010. "Are Education and Entrepreneurial Income Endogenous and do Family Background Variables make Sense as Instruments? A Bayesian Analysis," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 10-024/4, Tinbergen Institute.
    10. Block Joern H. & Hoogerheide Lennart & Thurik Roy, 2012. "Are Education and Entrepreneurial Income Endogenous? A Bayesian Analysis," Entrepreneurship Research Journal, De Gruyter, vol. 2(3), pages 1-29, July.
    11. Xi, Guoqian & Block, Jörn & Lasch, Frank & Robert, Frank & Thurik, Roy, 2017. "How Does Firm Survival Differ between Business Takeovers and New Venture Start-ups?," IZA Discussion Papers 11155, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    12. Peter Zwan & Ingrid Verheul & A. Thurik, 2012. "The entrepreneurial ladder, gender, and regional development," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 627-643, October.
    13. van der Zwan Peter & Verheul Ingrid & Thurik Roy, 2011. "The Entrepreneurial Ladder in Transition and Non-Transition Economies," Entrepreneurship Research Journal, De Gruyter, vol. 1(2), pages 1-20, March.
    14. Vera Rocha & Anabela Carneiro & Celeste Amorim Varum, 2013. "Entrepreneurship Dynamics: Entry Routes, Business-Owner's Persistence and Exit Modes," CEF.UP Working Papers 1310, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
    15. N.S. Bosma & E. Stam & S. Wennekers, 2012. "Entrepreneurial Employee Activity: A Large Scale International Study," Working Papers 12-12, Utrecht School of Economics.
    16. Niels Bosma & Sander Wennekers & F. Stam, 2010. "Intrapreneurship - An international study," Scales Research Reports H201005, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    17. Niels Bosma & Sander Wennekers & F. Stam, 2013. "Institutions and the allocation of entrepreneurship across new and established organizations," Scales Research Reports H201213, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    18. Vera Rocha & Anabela Carneiro & Celeste Varum, 2015. "Entry and exit dynamics of nascent business owners," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 63-84, June.
    19. Block, J.H. & Thurik, A.R. & van der Zwan, P.W. & Walter, S., 2010. "Business Takeover or New Venture? Individual and Environmental Determinants from a Cross-Country Study," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2010-042-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    20. Kevin Levillain & Blanche Segrestin, 2016. "Entrepreneur’s Wealth vs. Firm’s Welfare: Exploring an “evergreen” governance for firm succession," Post-Print hal-01292956, HAL.
    21. André van Stel & Sander Wennekers & Jolanda Hessels & Peter van der Zwan, 2012. "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2011 The Netherlands," Scales Research Reports A201211, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    22. F. Stam & Neil Thompson & Andrea Herrmann & Marko Hekkert, 2012. "The Environmental Regulation Paradox for Clean Tech Ventures," Scales Research Reports H201217, EIM Business and Policy Research.

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    JEL classification:

    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship

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