IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/msm/wpaper/2011-35.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Foreign Aid for Innovation: The Missing Ingredient in Private Sector Development?

Author

Listed:
  • Wim Naudé

    (Maastricht School of Management, Maastricht Graduate School of Governance, University of Maastricht, and United Nations University (UNU-MERIT), Maastricht, The Netherlands, e-mail: naude@msm.nl)

Abstract

Adoption and adaptation of foreign technology is an important catch-up mechanism for developing countries and can contribute towards the achievement of the millennium development goals. Despite this until now very little foreign aid has been specifically targeting innovation in developing countries - more substantial aid has been promoting ‘private sector development’ (PSD) – or entrepreneurship – so that one can see PSD initiatives to have been the major channel through which donors have been promoting innovation in developing countries. Whether this has been an appropriate channel, with appropriate instruments, is the first of two main questions that will be addressed in this paper. The second main question is how PSD initiatives should be adapted or fine-tuned to provide greater and more effective support for appropriate innovation activities in developing countries – and by implication make foreign aid more effective. In this regard two aspects that will receive particular attention are the entrepreneurship-government relationship, and the innovation policy-stage of development dimension.

Suggested Citation

  • Wim Naudé, 2011. "Foreign Aid for Innovation: The Missing Ingredient in Private Sector Development?," Working Papers 2011/35, Maastricht School of Management.
  • Handle: RePEc:msm:wpaper:2011/35
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://web2.msm.nl/RePEc/msm/wpaper/MSM-WP2011-35.pdf
    File Function: First version, 2011
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Acs, Zoltan J. & Szerb, László, 2009. "The Global Entrepreneurship Index (GEINDEX)," Foundations and Trends(R) in Entrepreneurship, now publishers, vol. 5(5), pages 341-435, August.
    2. Subhayu Bandyopadhyay & Todd Sandler & Javed Younas, 2011. "Foreign direct investment, aid, and terrorism: an analysis of developing countries," Working Papers 2011-004, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    3. Bronwyn Hall & Alessandro Maffioli, 2008. "Evaluating the impact of technology development funds in emerging economies: evidence from Latin America," The European Journal of Development Research, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 20(2), pages 172-198.
    4. Dean Karlan & Martin Valdivia, 2011. "Teaching Entrepreneurship: Impact of Business Training on Microfinance Clients and Institutions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(2), pages 510-527, May.
    5. C. Praag & Peter Versloot, 2007. "What is the value of entrepreneurship? A review of recent research," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 351-382, December.
    6. Lopez-Acevedo , Gladys & Tinajero, Monica, 2010. "Mexico : impact evaluation of sme programs using panel firm data," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5186, The World Bank.
    7. Volpe Martincus, Christian & Carballo, Jerónimo, 2008. "Is export promotion effective in developing countries? Firm-level evidence on the intensive and the extensive margins of exports," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 89-106, September.
    8. Arndt Channing & Jones Sam & Tarp Finn, 2010. "Aid, Growth, and Development: Have We Come Full Circle?," Journal of Globalization and Development, De Gruyter, vol. 1(2), pages 1-29, December.
    9. Koski, Heli & Pajarinen, Mika, 2011. "Do Business Subsidies Facilitate Employment Growth?," Discussion Papers 1235, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
    10. Fagerberg, Jan & Srholec, Martin & Knell, Mark, 2007. "The Competitiveness of Nations: Why Some Countries Prosper While Others Fall Behind," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 1595-1620, October.
    11. Rajan, Raghuram G. & Subramanian, Arvind, 2011. "Aid, Dutch disease, and manufacturing growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(1), pages 106-118, January.
    12. Coad, Alex & Rao, Rekha, 2008. "Innovation and firm growth in high-tech sectors: A quantile regression approach," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 633-648, May.
    13. Bronwyn Hall & Francesca Lotti & Jacques Mairesse, 2009. "Innovation and productivity in SMEs: empirical evidence for Italy," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 13-33, June.
    14. Erik Stam & Kashifa Suddle & Jolanda Hessels & André van Stel, 2009. "High-Growth Entrepreneurs, Public Policies, and Economic Growth," International Studies in Entrepreneurship, in: Rui Baptista & Joao Leitao (ed.), Public Policies for Fostering Entrepreneurship, chapter 0, pages 91-110, Springer.
    15. Ardic, Oya Pinar & Mylenko, Nataliya & Saltane, Valentina, 2011. "Small and medium enterprises : a cross-country analysis with a new data set," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5538, The World Bank.
    16. Fulvio Castellacci & José Miguel Natera, 2011. "A new panel dataset for cross-country analyses of national systems, growth and development (CANA)," Working Papers del Instituto Complutense de Estudios Internacionales 1105, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto Complutense de Estudios Internacionales.
    17. Raquel Ortega-Argilés & Peter Voigt, 2009. "Business R&D in SMEs," JRC Working Papers on Corporate R&D and Innovation 2009-7, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
    18. Michaelides, Marios & Benus, Jacob, 2012. "Are self-employment training programs effective? Evidence from Project GATE," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 695-705.
    19. Poh Kam Wong & Lena Lee & Maw Der Foo, 2008. "Occupational Choice: The Influence of Product vs. Process Innovation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 267-281, March.
    20. Krishna B. Kumar & Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, "undated". "What Determines Firm Size?," CRSP working papers 496, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
    21. Howard White, 2013. "An introduction to the use of randomised control trials to evaluate development interventions," Journal of Development Effectiveness, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 30-49, March.
    22. Alesina, Alberto & Dollar, David, 2000. "Who Gives Foreign Aid to Whom and Why?," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 33-63, March.
    23. Robert Lensink & Oliver Morrissey, 2000. "Aid instability as a measure of uncertainty and the positive impact of aid on growth," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(3), pages 31-49.
    24. Chen, Shaohua & Mu, Ren & Ravallion, Martin, 2009. "Are there lasting impacts of aid to poor areas?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(3-4), pages 512-528, April.
    25. Erik Stam & Karl Wennberg, 2009. "The roles of R&D in new firm growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 77-89, June.
    26. Bruhn, Miriam & Zia, Bilal, 2011. "Stimulating managerial capital in emerging markets : the impact of business and financial literacy for young entrepreneurs," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5642, The World Bank.
    27. Felicitas Nowak-Lehmann D. & Inmaculada Martinez-Zarzoso & Adriana Cardozo & Dierk Herzer & Stephan Klasen, 2010. "Foreign Aid and Recipient Countries` Exports: Does Aid Promote Bilateral Trade?," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 206, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
    28. Ojha, Vijay P., 2009. "Carbon emissions reduction strategies and poverty alleviation in India," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 14(3), pages 323-348, June.
    29. Khalid Sekkat, 2009. "Does competition improve productivity in developing countries?," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 145-162.
    30. Suresh de Mel & David McKenzie & Christopher Woodruff, 2009. "Returns to Capital in Microenterprises: Evidence from a Field Experiment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 124(1), pages 423-423.
    31. G. M.P. Swann, 2009. "The Economics of Innovation," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 13211.
    32. Raquel Ortega-Argilés & Marco Vivarelli & Peter Voigt, 2009. "R&D in SMEs: a paradox?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 3-11, June.
    33. Ajit Singh, 2006. "Competition and Competition Policy in Emerging Markets: International and Developmental Dimensions," Chapters, in: Philip Arestis & John S.L. McCombie & Roger Vickerman (ed.), Growth and Economic Development, chapter 12, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    34. Werner Hölzl, 2009. "Is the R&D behaviour of fast-growing SMEs different? Evidence from CIS III data for 16 countries," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 59-75, June.
    35. Channing Arndt & Sam Jones & Finn Tarp, 2009. "Aid and Growth: Have We Come Full Circle?," WIDER Working Paper Series DP2009-05, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    36. Bulír, Ales & Gelb, Alan & Mosley, Paul, 2008. "Introduction: The Volatility of Overseas Aid," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 2045-2047, October.
    37. Josh Lerner, 2010. "The future of public efforts to boost entrepreneurship and venture capital," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 255-264, October.
    38. Dutz, Mark & Hayri, Aydin, 1999. "Does More Intense Competition Lead to Higher Growth?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2249, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    39. Niels Bosma & Veronique Schutjens & Erik Stam, 2009. "Entrepreneurship in European Regions," International Studies in Entrepreneurship, in: Rui Baptista & Joao Leitao (ed.), Public Policies for Fostering Entrepreneurship, chapter 0, pages 59-89, Springer.
    40. Nicholas Bloom & Aprajit Mahajan & David McKenzie & John Roberts, 2010. "Why Do Firms in Developing Countries Have Low Productivity?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(2), pages 619-623, May.
    41. Amsden, Alice H. & Singh, Ajit, 1994. "The optimal degree of competition and dynamic efficiency in Japan and Korea," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(3-4), pages 941-951, April.
    42. Zoltán J. Ács & László Szerb, 2010. "Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index 2011," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 14234.
    43. Hansen, Henrik & Tarp, Finn, 2001. "Aid and growth regressions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 547-570, April.
    44. Frot, Emmanuel & Santiso, Javier, 2009. "Crushed Aid: Fragmentation in Sectoral Aid," SITE Working Paper Series 6, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics.
    45. David Benson & Aaron Lies & Albert Okunade & Phanindra Wunnava, 2011. "Economic impact of a private sector micro-financing scheme in South Dakota," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 157-168, February.
    46. Braunerhjelm, Pontus, 2010. "Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Growth – Past experiences, current knowledge and policy implications," Working Papers 2010:2, Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum.
    47. Arndt Channing & Jones Sam & Tarp Finn, 2010. "Aid, Growth, and Development: Have We Come Full Circle?," Journal of Globalization and Development, De Gruyter, vol. 1(2), pages 1-29, December.
    48. Raghuram G. Rajan & Arvind Subramanian, 2008. "Aid and Growth: What Does the Cross-Country Evidence Really Show?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(4), pages 643-665, November.
    49. Rijkers, Bob & Laderchi, Caterina Ruggeri & Teal, Francis, 2008. "Who benefits from promoting small and medium scale enterprises ? some empirical evidence from Ethiopia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4629, The World Bank.
    50. Fagerberg, Jan & Srholec, Martin, 2008. "National innovation systems, capabilities and economic development," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 1417-1435, October.
    51. Aghion, Ph. & Dewatripont, M. & Rey, P., 1997. "Corporate governance, competition policy and industrial policy," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(3-5), pages 797-805, April.
    52. Michael Pflüger & Stephan Russek, 2011. "Business Conditions and Default Risks Across Countries," Working Papers 098, Bavarian Graduate Program in Economics (BGPE).
    53. Oliver Morrissey, 1990. "The Commercialization of Aid: Business Interests and the UK Aid Budget 1978‐88," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 8(3), pages 301-322, September.
    54. William Easterly, 2003. "Can Foreign Aid Buy Growth?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 17(3), pages 23-48, Summer.
    55. Mohapatra, Sandeep & Rozelle, Scott & Goodhue, Rachael, 2007. "The Rise of Self-Employment in Rural China: Development or Distress?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 163-181, January.
    56. Dalgaard, Carl-Johan & Erickson, Lennart, 2009. "Reasonable Expectations and the First Millennium Development Goal: How Much Can Aid Achieve?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 1170-1181, July.
    57. Carl-Johan Dalgaard & Henrik Hansen & Finn Tarp, 2004. "On The Empirics of Foreign Aid and Growth," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(496), pages 191-216, June.
    58. Ayyagari, Meghana & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2011. "Small vs. young firms across the world : contribution to employment, job creation, and growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5631, The World Bank.
    59. Tony Killick & Mick Foster, 2007. "The Macroeconomics of Doubling Aid to Africa and the Centrality of the Supply Side," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 25(2), pages 167-192, March.
    60. Philipp Koellinger, 2008. "Why are some entrepreneurs more innovative than others?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(1), pages 21-37, June.
    61. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt, 2004. "SMEs, Growth, and Poverty," World Bank Publications - Reports 11278, The World Bank Group.
    62. E. Stam & B. Nooteboom, 2011. "Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Institutions," Working Papers 11-03, Utrecht School of Economics.
    63. Oosterbeek, Hessel & van Praag, Mirjam & Ijsselstein, Auke, 2010. "The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurship skills and motivation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 442-454, April.
    64. Sérgio Kannebley & Júlia Sekkel & Bruno Araújo, 2010. "Economic performance of Brazilian manufacturing firms: a counterfactual analysis of innovation impacts," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 339-353, April.
    65. Anne Boschini & Anders Olofsgård, 2007. "Foreign aid: An instrument for fighting communism?," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(4), pages 622-648.
    66. Pflüger, Michael P. & Russek, Stephan, 2011. "Business Conditions and Default Risks across Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 5541, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    67. Victoria Castillo & Alessandro Maffioli & Ana P. Monsalvo & Sofía Rojo & Rodolfo Stucchi, 2010. "Can SME Policies Improve Firm Performance? Evidence from an Impact Evaluation in Argentina," OVE Working Papers 0710, Inter-American Development Bank, Office of Evaluation and Oversight (OVE).
    68. Espen Villanger & Alf Morten Jerve, 2009. "Assessing aid impact: a review of Norwegian evaluation practice," Journal of Development Effectiveness, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(2), pages 171-194, June.
    69. Erol Taymaz & Yeşim Üçdoğruk, 2009. "Overcoming the double hurdles to investing in technology," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 109-128, June.
    70. Scott Shane, 2009. "Why encouraging more people to become entrepreneurs is bad public policy," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(2), pages 141-149, August.
    71. Naude, Wim & Santos-Paulino, Amelia U. & McGillivray, Mark, 2008. "Fragile States," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    72. Ferro, Esteban & Wilson, John S., 2011. "Foreign aid and business bottlenecks : a study of aid effectiveness," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5546, The World Bank.
    73. María Rochina-Barrachina & Juan Mañez & Juan Sanchis-Llopis, 2010. "Process innovations and firm productivity growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(2), pages 147-166, February.
    74. Szirmai, Adam & Naude, Wim & Goedhuys, Micheline (ed.), 2011. "Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Economic Development," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199596515.
    75. Gerrit de Wit & Mercedes Teruel, 2011. "Determinants of high-growth firms," Scales Research Reports H201107, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Luis Gómez-Echeverri, 2013. "Foreign Aid and Sustainable Energy," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2013-093, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    2. Gómez-Echeverri, Luis, 2013. "Foreign Aid and Sustainable Energy," WIDER Working Paper Series 093, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Juergen Bitzer & Erkan Goeren, 2018. "Foreign Aid and Subnational Development: A Grid Cell Analysis," Working Papers V-407-18, University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics, revised Mar 2018.
    2. repec:unu:wpaper:wp2012-25 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Gravier-Rymaszewska, Joanna, 2012. "How Aid Supply Responds to Economic Crises: A Panel VAR Approach," WIDER Working Paper Series 025, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    4. Joanna Gravier-Rymaszewska, 2012. "How Aid Supply Responds to Economic Crises: A Panel VAR Approach," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2012-025, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    5. Acs, Zoltan J. & Wim Naud�, 2011. "Entrepreneurship, Stages of Development, and Industrialization," WIDER Working Paper Series 080, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    6. Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu & Lahiri, Sajal & Younas, Javed, 2011. "Should Easier Access to International Credit Replace Foreign Aid?," IZA Discussion Papers 6024, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu & Lahiri, Sajal & Younas, Javed, 2015. "Financing growth through foreign aid and private foreign loans: Nonlinearities and complementarities," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 75-96.
    8. Subhayu Bandyopadhyay & Sajal Lahiri & Javed Younas, 2013. "Financing growth: foreign aid vs. foreign loans," Working Papers 2013-031, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    9. Maruta, Admasu Asfaw, 2019. "Can aid for financial sector buy financial development?," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 62(C).
    10. Arndt Channing & Jones Sam & Tarp Finn, 2010. "Aid, Growth, and Development: Have We Come Full Circle?," Journal of Globalization and Development, De Gruyter, vol. 1(2), pages 1-29, December.
    11. Temple, Jonathan R.W., 2010. "Aid and Conditionality," Handbook of Development Economics, in: Dani Rodrik & Mark Rosenzweig (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 5, chapter 0, pages 4415-4523, Elsevier.
    12. Maruta, Admasu Asfaw & Banerjee, Rajabrata & Cavoli, Tony, 2020. "Foreign aid, institutional quality and economic growth: Evidence from the developing world," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 444-463.
    13. Hassen Abda Wako, 2018. "Aid, institutions and economic growth in sub†Saharan Africa: Heterogeneous donors and heterogeneous responses," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(1), pages 23-44, February.
    14. Chauvet, Lisa & Ehrhart, Hélène, 2018. "Aid and growth: evidence from firm-level data," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 135(C), pages 461-477.
    15. Muhammad Azam & Yi Feng, 2022. "Does foreign aid stimulate economic growth in developing countries? Further evidence in both aggregate and disaggregated samples," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 56(2), pages 533-556, April.
    16. Admasu Asfaw Maruta & Rajabrata Banerjee, 2021. "Does energy aid improve energy efficiency in developing countries?," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 61(1), pages 355-388, July.
    17. Adamu, Patricia A., 2013. "The Impact of Foreign Aid on Economic Growth in ECOWAS Countries: A Simultaneous-Equation Model," WIDER Working Paper Series 143, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    18. repec:dau:papers:123456789/13581 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. ?ukasz Mar?, 2015. "The impact of aid on total government expenditures: New evidence on fungibility," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2015-010, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    20. Martin Ravallion, 2014. "On the Role of Aid in The Great Escape," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 60(4), pages 967-984, December.
    21. Patricia A. Adamu, 2013. "The Impact of Foreign Aid on Economic Growth in ECOWAS Countries: a Simultaneous-Equation Model," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2013-143, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    22. Łukasz Marć, 2017. "The Impact of Aid on Total Government Expenditures: New Evidence on Fungibility," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(3), pages 627-663, August.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Innovation; entrepreneurship; private sector development; foreign aid;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O32 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
    • O38 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Government Policy
    • F35 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Aid

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:msm:wpaper:2011/35. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/msmmmnl.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Maud de By The email address of this maintainer does not seem to be valid anymore. Please ask Maud de By to update the entry or send us the correct address (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/msmmmnl.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.