IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ipt/iptwpa/jrc108693.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The EU-Wide Individual Farm Model for Common Agricultural Policy Analysis (IFM-CAP v.1): Economic Impacts of CAP Greening

Author

Listed:

Abstract

This report presents the first EU-wide individual farm level model (IFM-CAP) aiming to assess the impacts of CAP towards 2020 on farm economics and environmental effects. The rationale for such a farm-level model is based on the increasing demand for a micro simulation tool capable to model farm-specific policies and to capture farm heterogeneity across the EU in terms of policy representation and impacts. Based on Positive Mathematical Programming, IFM-CAP seeks to improve the quality of policy assessment upon existing aggregate and aggregated farm-group models and to provide assessment of distributional effects over the EU farm population. To guarantee the highest representativeness of the EU agricultural sector, the model is applied to every EU-FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network) individual farm (83292 farms). The report provides a detailed description of the first IFM-CAP model version (IFM-CAP V.1) in terms of design, mathematical structure, data preparation, modelling livestock activities, allocation of input costs, modelling of the CAP post-2013 and calibration process. The theoretical background, the technical specification and the outputs that can be generated from this model are also briefly presented and discussed. Model capability is illustrated in this study with an analysis of the EU farmers' responses to the greening requirements introduced by the 2013 CAP reform.

Suggested Citation

  • Kamel Elouhichi & Maria Espinosa Goded & Pavel Ciaian & Angel Perni Llorente & Bouda Vosough Ahmadi & Liesbeth Colen & Sergio Gomez Y Paloma, 2018. "The EU-Wide Individual Farm Model for Common Agricultural Policy Analysis (IFM-CAP v.1): Economic Impacts of CAP Greening," JRC Research Reports JRC108693, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
  • Handle: RePEc:ipt:iptwpa:jrc108693
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC108693
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Lelyon, Baptiste & Chatelier, Vincent & Daniel, Karine, 2011. "Decoupling and prices: determinant of dairy farmers’ choices?," Review of Agricultural and Environmental Studies - Revue d'Etudes en Agriculture et Environnement (RAEStud), Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), vol. 92(1).
    2. Nicholas Tsounis & Aspasia Vlachvei (ed.), 2017. "Advances in Applied Economic Research," Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics, Springer, number 978-3-319-48454-9, March.
    3. Schmid, Erwin, 2004. "Das Betriebsoptimierungssystem FAMOS - FArM Optimization System," Discussion Papers DP-09-2004, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, Institute for Sustainable Economic Development.
    4. David E. Kenyon, 2001. "Producer Ability to Forecast Harvest Corn and Soybean Prices," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 23(1), pages 151-162.
    5. Heckelei, Thomas & Britz, Wolfgang & Zhang, Yinan, 2012. "Positive Mathematical Programming Approaches – Recent Developments in Literature and Applied Modelling," Bio-based and Applied Economics Journal, Italian Association of Agricultural and Applied Economics (AIEAA), vol. 1(1), pages 1-16, April.
    6. Heckelei, Thomas & Mittelhammer, Ronald C. & Jansson, Torbjorn, 2008. "A Bayesian Alternative To Generalized Cross Entropy Solutions For Underdetermined Econometric Models," Discussion Papers 56973, University of Bonn, Institute for Food and Resource Economics.
    7. De Cara, Stéphane & Jayet, Pierre-Alain, 2011. "Marginal abatement costs of greenhouse gas emissions from European agriculture, cost effectiveness, and the EU non-ETS burden sharing agreement," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(9), pages 1680-1690, July.
    8. Visagie, S.E. & Ghebretsadik, A.H., 2005. "Modelling risk in farm planning," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 44(4), pages 1-25, December.
    9. Mekbib G. Haile & Matthias Kalkuhl & Joachim von Braun, 2016. "Worldwide Acreage and Yield Response to International Price Change and Volatility: A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis for Wheat, Rice, Corn, and Soybeans," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 98(1), pages 172-190.
    10. Alexandre Gohin & Jean-Christophe Bureau, 2006. "Modelling the EU sugar supply to assess sectoral policy reforms," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 33(2), pages 223-247, June.
    11. Veysset, P. & Bebin, D. & Lherm, M., 2005. "Adaptation to Agenda 2000 (CAP reform) and optimisation of the farming system of French suckler cattle farms in the Charolais area: a model-based study," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 179-202, February.
    12. Ramsden, S. & Gibbons, J. & Wilson, P., 1999. "Impacts of changing relative prices on farm level dairy production in the UK," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 62(3), pages 201-215, December.
    13. Thorne, Peter J. & Hengsdijk, Huib & Janssen, Sander J.C. & Louhichi, Kamel & van Keulen, Herman & Thornton, Philip K., 2009. "Modelling Livestock Component in FSSIM," Reports 57788, Wageningen University, SEAMLESS: System for Environmental and Agricultural Modelling; Linking European Science and Society.
    14. Alexandre Gohin, 2006. "Assessing CAP reform: sensitivity of modelling decoupled policies," Post-Print hal-01931639, HAL.
    15. Chavas, Jean-Paul & Holt, Matthew T, 1996. "Economic Behavior under Uncertainty: A Joint Analysis of Risk Preferences and Technology," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(2), pages 329-335, May.
    16. Nicholson, Charles F. & Lee, David R. & Boisvert, Richard N. & Blake, Robert W. & Urbina, C. Isabella, 1994. "An optimization model of the dual-purpose cattle production system in the humid lowlands of Venezuela," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 311-334.
    17. Heckelei, Thomas & Britz, Wolfgang, 2000. "Positive Mathematical Programming with Multiple Data Points: A Cross-Sectional Estimation Procedure," Cahiers d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales (CESR), Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), vol. 57.
    18. John M. Antle, 1983. "Incorporating Risk in Production Analysis," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 65(5), pages 1099-1106.
    19. Harry Markowitz, 1952. "Portfolio Selection," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 7(1), pages 77-91, March.
    20. Unknown, 2008. "Institute of Agricultural Economics," Economics of Agriculture, Institute of Agricultural Economics, vol. 55(3).
    21. Chavas, Jean-Paul, 2000. "On information and market dynamics: The case of the U.S. beef market," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 24(5-7), pages 833-853, June.
    22. Pavel Ciaian & D'Artis Kancs & Johan Swinnen, 2014. "The Impact of the 2013 Reform of the Common Agricultural Policy on Land Capitalization in the European Union," Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 36(4), pages 643-673.
    23. Arata, Linda & Donati, Michele & Sckokai, Paolo & Arfini, Filippo, 2014. "Incorporating risk in a positive mathematical programming framework: a new methodological approach," 2014 International Congress, August 26-29, 2014, Ljubljana, Slovenia 182659, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    24. Pierre Mérel & Santiago Bucaram, 2010. "Exact calibration of programming models of agricultural supply against exogenous supply elasticities," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 37(3), pages 395-418, September.
    25. Gocht, Alexander & Britz, Wolfgang, 2011. "EU-wide farm type supply models in CAPRI--How to consistently disaggregate sector models into farm type models," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 146-167, January.
    26. Alexander Gocht & Pavel Ciaian & Maria Bielza & Jean-Michel Terres & Norbert Röder & Mihaly Himics & Guna Salputra, 2017. "EU-wide Economic and Environmental Impacts of CAP Greening with High Spatial and Farm-type Detail," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 68(3), pages 651-681, September.
    27. Gartner, J. A., 1982. "Replacement policy in dairy herds on farms where heifers compete with cows for grassland: Part 2-Experimentation," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 163-191, April.
    28. Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard, 1992. "Optimal replacement in the dairy herd: A multi-component system," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 1-24.
    29. Paris,Quirino, 2011. "Economic Foundations of Symmetric Programming," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521123020.
    30. yves Léon & Ludo Peeters & Maurice Quinqu & yves Surry, 1999. "The use of maximum entropy to estimate input-output coefficients from regional farm accounting data," Post-Print hal-01931589, HAL.
    31. Severini, Simone & Cortignani, Raffaele, 2011. "Modeling farmer participation to a revenue insurance scheme by means of Positive Mathematical Programming," 2011 International Congress, August 30-September 2, 2011, Zurich, Switzerland 116001, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    32. S De Cara & P-A Jayet, 2000. "Emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture: the heterogeneity of abatement costs in France," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 27(3), pages 281-303, September.
    33. Yves Léony & Ludo Peeters & Maurice Quinqu & Yves Surry, 1999. "The Use of Maximum Entropy to Estimate Input‐Output Coefficients From Regional Farm Accounting Data," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(3), pages 425-439, September.
    34. Judez, L. & Chaya, C. & Martinez, S. & Gonzalez, A. A., 2001. "Effects of the measures envisaged in "Agenda 2000" on arable crop producers and beef and veal producers: an application of Positive Mathematical Programming to representative farms of a Span," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 121-138, February.
    35. de Muro, Pasquale & Salvatici, Luca, 2001. "The Common Agricultural Policy In Multisectoral Models," Working Papers 14804, National Institute of Agricultural Economics, Italy - INEA, Osservatorio Sulle Politiche Agricole dell'UE.
    36. Gartner, J. A., 1982. "Replacement policy in dairy herds on farms where heifers compete with cows for grassland--Part 3: A revised hypothesis," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 249-272, June.
    37. Stéphane Cara & Martin Houzé & Pierre-Alain Jayet, 2005. "Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agriculture in the EU: A Spatial Assessment of Sources and Abatement Costs," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 32(4), pages 551-583, December.
    38. Jansson, Torbjörn & Heckelei, Thomas & Gocht, Alexander & Basnet, Shyam Kumar & Zhang, Yinan & Neuenfeldt, Sebastian, 2014. "Analysing impacts of changing price variability with estimated farm risk-programming models," 2014 International Congress, August 26-29, 2014, Ljubljana, Slovenia 182665, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    39. Thomas Heckelei & Hendrik Wolff, 2003. "Estimation of constrained optimisation models for agricultural supply analysis based on generalised maximum entropy," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 30(1), pages 27-50, March.
    40. Alison Burrell & Mihaly Himics & Benjamin Van Doorslaer & Pavel Ciaian & Shailesh Shrestha, 2014. "EU sugar policy: A sweet transition after 2015 ?," JRC Research Reports JRC76619, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
    41. Kalantari, Afshin S. & Cabrera, Victor E. & Solis, Daniel, 2014. "A comparison analysis of two alternative dairy cattle replacement strategies: Optimization versus Simulation models," Economi­a Agraria (Revista Economia Agraria), Agrarian Economist Association (AEA), Chile, vol. 18.
    42. Fragoso, R. & Marques, C. & Lucas, M.R. & Martins, M.B. & Jorge, R., 2011. "The economic effects of common agricultural policy on Mediterranean montado/dehesa ecosystem," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 311-327, March.
    43. Petsakos, Athanasios & Rozakis, Stelios, 2015. "Calibration of agricultural risk programming models," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 242(2), pages 536-545.
    44. Neuenfeldt, Sebastian & Gocht, Alexander, 2014. "A handbook on the use of FADN database in programming models," Thünen Working Papers 35, Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries.
    45. Solazzo, Roberto & Pierangeli, Fabio, 2016. "How does greening affect farm behaviour? Trade-off between commitments and sanctions in the Northern Italy," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 149(C), pages 88-98.
    46. Alexander Gocht & Wolfgang Britz & Pavel Ciaian & Sergio Gomez y Paloma, 2013. "Farm Type Effects of an EU-wide Direct Payment Harmonisation," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(1), pages 1-32, February.
    47. Paolo Sckokai & Daniele Moro, 2006. "Modeling the Reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy for Arable Crops under Uncertainty," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 88(1), pages 43-56.
    48. Crosson, P. & O'Kiely, P. & O'Mara, F.P. & Wallace, M., 2006. "The development of a mathematical model to investigate Irish beef production systems," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 89(2-3), pages 349-370, September.
    49. Antle, John M., 1983. "Incorporating Risk In Production Analysis," 1983 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 3, West Lafayette, Indiana 279106, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    50. Jones, Philip & Salter, Andrew, 2013. "Modelling the economics of farm-based anaerobic digestion in a UK whole-farm context," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 215-225.
    51. Alexandre Gohin, 2006. "Assessing CAP Reform: Sensitivity of Modelling Decoupled Policies," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(3), pages 415-440, September.
    52. Barry T. Coyle, 1999. "Risk Aversion and Yield Uncertainty in Duality Models of Production: A Mean-Variance Approach," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 81(3), pages 553-567.
    53. Kamel Louhichi & Pavel Ciaian & Maria Espinosa & Angel Perni & Sergio Gomez y Paloma, 2018. "Economic impacts of CAP greening: application of an EU-wide individual farm model for CAP analysis (IFM-CAP)," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 45(2), pages 205-238.
    54. Vanni, Francesco & Cardillo, Concetta, 2013. "The effects of CAP greening on Italian agriculture," Politica Agricola Internazionale - International Agricultural Policy, Edizioni L'Informatore Agrario, vol. 2013(3), September.
    55. Neuenfeldt, Sebastian & Gocht, Alexander, 2014. "A Handbook on the use of FADN Database in Programming Models," Thuenen Working Papers 196911, Johann Heinrich von Thuenen-Institut (vTI), Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries.
    56. Arfini, Filippo & Donati, Michele & Grossi, L. & Paris, Quirino, 2008. "Revenue and Cost Functions in PMP: a Methodological Integration for a Territorial Analysis of CAP," 107th Seminar, January 30-February 1, 2008, Sevilla, Spain 6636, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    57. Shideed, Kamil H. & White, Fred C., 1989. "Alternative Forms Of Price Expectations In Supply Analysis For U.S. Corn And Soybean Acreages," Western Journal of Agricultural Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 14(2), pages 1-12, December.
    58. Chavas, Jean-Paul & Pope, Rulon D. & Kao, Robert S., 1983. "An Analysis Of The Role Of Futures Prices, Cash Prices And Government Programs In Acreage Response," Western Journal of Agricultural Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 8(1), pages 1-7, July.
    59. Paris,Quirino, 2011. "Economic Foundations of Symmetric Programming," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521194723.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Xuan Liu & Gerrit Cornelis van Kooten & Jun Duan, 2020. "Calibration of agricultural risk programming models using positive mathematical programming," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 64(3), pages 795-817, July.
    2. Britz, Wolfgang & Ciaian, Pavel & Gocht, Alexander & Kanellopoulos, Argyris & Kremmydas, Dimitrios & Müller, Marc & Petsakos, Athanasios & Reidsma, Pytrik, 2021. "A design for a generic and modular bio-economic farm model," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 191(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Kamel Louhichi & Pavel Ciaian & Maria Espinosa & Angel Perni & Sergio Gomez y Paloma, 2018. "Economic impacts of CAP greening: application of an EU-wide individual farm model for CAP analysis (IFM-CAP)," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 45(2), pages 205-238.
    2. Louhichi, Kamel & Ciaian, Pavel & Espinosa, Maria & Colen, Liesbeth & Perni, Angel & Gomez y Paloma, Sergio, 2015. "EU-wide individual Farm Model for CAP Analysis (IFM-CAP): Application to Crop Diversification Policy," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 212155, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    3. Louhichi, Kamel & Ciaian, Pavel & Espinosa, Maria & Colen, Liesbeth & Perni, Angel & Gomez y Paloma, Sergio, 2015. "Farm-level economic impacts of EU-CAP greening measures," 2015 AAEA & WAEA Joint Annual Meeting, July 26-28, San Francisco, California 205309, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    4. Louhichi, Kamel & Ciaian, Pavel & Espinosa, Maria & Colen, Liesbeth & Perni, Angel & Paloma, Sergio, 2015. "The Impact of Crop Diversification Measure: EU-wide Evidence Based on IFM-CAP Model," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 211542, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    5. Viaggi, Davide & Raggi, Meri & Gomez y Paloma, Sergio, 2011. "Farm-household investment behaviour and the CAP decoupling: Methodological issues in assessing policy impacts," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 127-145, January.
    6. Britz, Wolfgang & Linda, Arata, "undated". "How Important Are Crop Shares In Managing Risk For Specialized Arable Farms? A Panel Estimation Of A Programming Model For Three European Regions," 56th Annual Conference, Bonn, Germany, September 28-30, 2016 244801, German Association of Agricultural Economists (GEWISOLA).
    7. Xuan Liu & Gerrit Cornelis van Kooten & Jun Duan, 2020. "Calibration of agricultural risk programming models using positive mathematical programming," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 64(3), pages 795-817, July.
    8. Petsakos, Athanasios & Rozakis, Stelios, 2015. "Calibration of agricultural risk programming models," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 242(2), pages 536-545.
    9. CARPENTIER, Alain & GOHIN, Alexandre & SCKOKAI, Paolo & THOMAS, Alban, 2015. "Economic modelling of agricultural production: past advances and new challenges," Review of Agricultural and Environmental Studies - Revue d'Etudes en Agriculture et Environnement (RAEStud), Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), vol. 96(1), March.
    10. Athanasios Petsakos & Stelios Rozakis, 2022. "Models and muddles: comment on ‘Calibration of agricultural risk programming models using positive mathematical programming’," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 66(3), pages 713-728, July.
    11. Kamel Louhichi & Pascal Tillie & Aymeric Ricome & Sergio Gomez y Paloma, 2020. "Modelling Farm-household Livelihoods in Developing Economies Insights from three country case studies using LSMS-ISA data [Modélisation des moyens de subsistance des ménages agricoles dans les écon," Post-Print hal-02544905, HAL.
    12. Alexander Gocht & Pavel Ciaian & Maria Bielza & Jean-Michel Terres & Norbert Röder & Mihaly Himics & Guna Salputra, 2017. "EU-wide Economic and Environmental Impacts of CAP Greening with High Spatial and Farm-type Detail," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 68(3), pages 651-681, September.
    13. Heckelei, Thomas & Britz, Wolfgang & Zhang, Yinan, 2012. "Positive Mathematical Programming Approaches – Recent Developments in Literature and Applied Modelling," Bio-based and Applied Economics Journal, Italian Association of Agricultural and Applied Economics (AIEAA), vol. 1(1), pages 1-16, April.
    14. Parisa Aghajanzadeh-Darzi & Pierre-Alain Jayet & Athanasios Petsakos, 2017. "Improvement of a Bio-Economic Mathematical Programming Model in the Case of On-Farm Source Inputs and Outputs," Journal of Quantitative Economics, Springer;The Indian Econometric Society (TIES), vol. 15(3), pages 489-508, September.
    15. Britz, Wolfgang & Ciaian, Pavel & Gocht, Alexander & Kanellopoulos, Argyris & Kremmydas, Dimitrios & Müller, Marc & Petsakos, Athanasios & Reidsma, Pytrik, 2021. "A design for a generic and modular bio-economic farm model," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 191(C).
    16. Louhichi, Kamel & Jacquet, Florence & Butault, Jean Pierre, 2012. "Estimating input allocation from heterogeneous data sources: A comparison of alternative estimation approaches," Agricultural Economics Review, Greek Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 13(2), pages 1-20.
    17. Alexander Gocht & Pavel Ciaian & Maria Bielza & Jean-Michel Terres & Norbert Röder & Mihaly Himics & Guna Salputra, 2016. "Economic and environmental impacts of CAP greening: CAPRI simulation results," JRC Research Reports JRC102519, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
    18. Maria Espinosa & Kamel Louhichi & Angel Perni & Pavel Ciaian, 2020. "EU‐Wide Impacts of the 2013 CAP Direct Payments Reform: A Farm‐Level Analysis," Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 42(4), pages 695-715, December.
    19. Matthews, Alan & Salvatici, Luca & Scoppola, Margherita, 2017. "Trade Impacts of Agricultural Support in the EU," Commissioned Papers 252767, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
    20. Magrini, Emiliano & Morales-Opazo, Cristian & Balie, Jean, 2014. "Supply response along the value chain in selected SSA countries: the case of grains," 2014: Food, Resources and Conflict, December 7-9, 2014. San Diego, California 197193, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Common Agricultural Policy; CAP greening; farm model; positive mathematical programming model; EU; IFM-CAP;
    All these keywords.

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ipt:iptwpa:jrc108693. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/ipjrces.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Publication Officer (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/ipjrces.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.