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Returns to education in India: Some recent evidence

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  • Tushar Agrawal

    () (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research)

Abstract

This paper estimates returns to education in India using a nationally representative survey. We estimate the standard Mincerian wage equation separately for rural and urban sectors. To account for the possibility of sample selection bias, Heckman two-step procedure is used. The findings indicate that returns to education increase with the level of education and differ for rural and urban residents. Private rates of returns are higher for graduation level in both the sectors. In general, the disadvantaged social groups of the society tend to earn lower wages. We find family background is an important determinant affecting the earnings of individuals. Using quantile regression method, we show the effect of education is not the same across the wage distribution. Returns differ considerably within education groups across different points of the wage distribution. Returns to education are positive at all quantiles. The results show that the returns are lower at the bottom quantiles and are higher at the upper quantiles.

Suggested Citation

  • Tushar Agrawal, 2011. "Returns to education in India: Some recent evidence," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2011-017, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
  • Handle: RePEc:ind:igiwpp:2011-017
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    File URL: http://www.igidr.ac.in/pdf/publication/WP-2011-017.pdf
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    Cited by:

    1. Maertens, Annemie, 2013. "Social Norms and Aspirations: Age of Marriage and Education in Rural India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 1-15.
    2. repec:eee:wdevel:v:97:y:2017:i:c:p:313-329 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. S Madheswaran, 2016. "The Changing Rates of Return to Education in India: Evidence from NSS Data," Working Papers id:11324, eSocialSciences.
    4. Anuneeta Mitra, 2016. "Education and earning linkages of regular and casual workers in India: a quantile regression approach," Journal of Social and Economic Development, Springer;Institute for Social and Economic Change, vol. 18(1), pages 147-174, October.
    5. Saravana Jaikumar & Ankur Sarin, 2015. "Conspicuous consumption and income inequality in an emerging economy: evidence from India," Marketing Letters, Springer, vol. 26(3), pages 279-292, September.
    6. Singhari, Smrutirekha & Madheswaran, S., 2016. "Changing rates of return to education in India: Evidence from NSS data," Working Papers 358, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore.
    7. LEE, Jong-Wha & Wie, Dainn, 2017. "Wage Structure and Gender Earnings Differentials in China and India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 313-329.
    8. Tushar Agrawal & S .Chandrasekhar, 2015. "Short term migrants in India: Characteristics, wages and work transition," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2015-007, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
    9. K.V. Ramaswamy & Tushar Agrawal, 2012. "Services-led growth, employment and job quality: A Study of manufacturing and service-sector in urban India," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2012-007, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Returns to Education; Wage Differential; Quantile Regression; India;

    JEL classification:

    • C13 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Estimation: General
    • I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials

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