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Services-led growth, employment and job quality: A Study of manufacturing and service-sector in urban India

Author

Listed:
  • K.V. Ramaswamy

    () (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research)

  • Tushar Agrawal

    () (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research)

Abstract

This is a study of employment growth, structure, and job quality outcomes in manufacturing and service-sector in urban India spanning the period 1999-2000 to 2009-10. The context is that of dynamic growth of service-sector in India beginning in the 1990s. This has raised the question whether India will skip the traditional sequence of agriculture to manufacturing with services taking up the leading sector role in India's growth path. We studied employment growth and related aspects of employment structure using the NSS surveys of employment and unemployment carried out in 1999-2000 and 2009-10 with a view to throw more light on the future role of manufacturing and services as providers of employment to large numbers joining the labour force. We did not find any acceleration in the service-sector employment growth relative to manufacturing in the urban areas of India. The good news is that young males have increased their share of regular employment both in manufacturing and services. However, we find greater duality in services sector in terms of the incidence of informality and wage inequality. In the service-sector those with more skills have received higher increases in real wage. The service-sector is relatively more skill demanding than manufacturing. We showed that skill composition of the workforce is markedly different between the two sectors with services clearly skill biased. Social security conditions are not found to be relatively much superior in services. Our results strongly suggest that service-sector is an unlikely destination for the millions of low skilled job seekers. India needs to focus on manufacturing sector to provide large scale employment.

Suggested Citation

  • K.V. Ramaswamy & Tushar Agrawal, 2012. "Services-led growth, employment and job quality: A Study of manufacturing and service-sector in urban India," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2012-007, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
  • Handle: RePEc:ind:igiwpp:2012-007
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    File URL: http://www.igidr.ac.in/pdf/publication/WP-2012-007.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Barry Bosworth & Susan M. Collins & Arvind Virmani, 2006. "Sources of Growth in the Indian Economy," India Policy Forum, Global Economy and Development Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 3(1), pages 1-69.
    2. Tushar Agrawal, 2011. "Returns to education in India: Some recent evidence," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2011-017, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
    3. Kijima, Yoko, 2006. "Why did wage inequality increase? Evidence from urban India 1983-99," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 97-117, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

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    Cited by:

    1. K L Krishna & Deb Kusum Das & Abdul Azeez Erumban & Suresh Aggarwal & Pilu Chandra Das, 2016. "Productivity Dynamics in India's Service Sector: An Industry-Level Perspective," Working Papers id:11401, eSocialSciences.
    2. S. Mahendra Dev, 2016. "Economic reforms, poverty and inequality," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2016-009, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
    3. K L Krishna & Deb Kusum Das & Abdul A Erumban & Suresh Aggarwal & Pilu Chandra Das, 2016. "Productivity Dynamics In India’S Service Sector: An Industry-Level Perspective," Working papers 261, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Employment; Job quality; Services; Structural change; Wage inequality;

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • O11 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • O14 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • O53 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East

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