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Disparities in earnings and education in India

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  • P. Geetha Rani

Abstract

This paper studies the impact of different levels of education, religion, caste as well as the impact of living in urban and rural communities on earnings in India. Besides these conventional stratification, yet another academic caste which influence earnings-the English language ability, is also examined. The paper uses a large cross-section sample of India Human Development Survey to estimate Mincer and augmented Mincer equations. The rates of return estimates obtained in these data and method confirm that returns to education increase with the level of education across location, caste-religion and English language ability. Returns to lower levels of education are low across different groups, indicating the low quality of basic schooling in the country. Returns to higher education vary at a great deal ranging between 4.9% among the rural workers and 38.2% among fluent English ability group. This is in contrast to Duraisamy reporting the highest returns to secondary education in India, between the period 1983 and 1993-1994. In a decade's time, with changes in the economy and in the labour market, higher education especially the English language ability along with higher education brings in the highest wage premium.

Suggested Citation

  • P. Geetha Rani, 2014. "Disparities in earnings and education in India," Cogent Economics & Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(1), pages 1-18, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:oaefxx:doi:10.1080/23322039.2014.941510
    DOI: 10.1080/23322039.2014.941510
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 2004. "Returns to investment in education: a further update," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 111-134.
    2. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    3. Mehtabul Azam & Aimee Chin & Nishith Prakash, 2013. "The Returns to English-Language Skills in India," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 61(2), pages 335-367.
    4. van de Walle, Dominique, 1998. "Assessing the welfare impacts of public spending," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 365-379, March.
    5. Duraisamy, P., 2002. "Changes in returns to education in India, 1983-94: by gender, age-cohort and location," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 609-622, December.
    6. P. Geetha Rani, 2014. "Equity in the distribution of government subsidies on education in India," International Journal of Education Economics and Development, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 5(1), pages 1-39.
    7. Puja Vasudeva Dutta, 2006. "Returns to Education: New Evidence for India, 1983-1999," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(4), pages 431-451.
    8. Tushar Agrawal, 2011. "Returns to education in India: Some recent evidence," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2011-017, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
    9. Desai, Sonalde & Dubey, Amaresh & Joshi, Brij Lal & Sen, Mitali & Sharif, Abusaleh & Vanneman, Reeve, 2010. "Human Development in India: Challenges for a Society in Transition," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198065128.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kumara, Ajantha Sisira, 2015. "Wage Differentials in Sri Lanka: The case of a post-conflict country with a free education policy," MPRA Paper 68068, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 25 Nov 2015.

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