IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/boe/boeewp/0573.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The real effects of capital requirements and monetary policy: evidence from the United Kingdom

Author

Listed:
  • De Marco, Filippo

    (Bocconi University)

  • Wieladek, Tomasz

    (Bank of England)

Abstract

We study the effect of changes to UK bank-specific capital requirements on small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) from 1999 to 2005. Following a 1% rise in capital requirements, SME asset growth (and investment) contracts by 3.5% to 6.9% (12%) in the first year of a new bank-firm relationship, but this effect declines over time. These results are robust to a number of different fixed effects specifications and measures of capital requirement changes that are orthogonal to balance sheet characteristics by construction. Banks with tight capital buffers are the most significant transmitters of this shock. Monetary policy only affects the asset growth of small bank borrowers, but has a similar impact on the same sectors as capital requirements. There is evidence that these instruments reinforce each other when tightened, but only for small banks. Firms that borrow from multiple banks and operate in sectors with alternative forms of finance are less (equally) affected by changes in capital requirements (monetary policy).

Suggested Citation

  • De Marco, Filippo & Wieladek, Tomasz, 2015. "The real effects of capital requirements and monetary policy: evidence from the United Kingdom," Bank of England working papers 573, Bank of England.
  • Handle: RePEc:boe:boeewp:0573
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/-/media/boe/files/working-paper/2015/the-real-effects-of-capital-requirements-and-monetary-policy-evidence-from-the-uk.pdf?la=en&hash=37AB2588D35A3187C9730A49AABD8EEF4397E7FC
    File Function: Full text
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Christina D. Romer & David H. Romer, 2004. "A New Measure of Monetary Shocks: Derivation and Implications," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(4), pages 1055-1084, September.
    2. Reint Gropp & Thomas Mosk & Steven Ongena & Carlo Wix, 2019. "Banks Response to Higher Capital Requirements: Evidence from a Quasi-Natural Experiment," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 32(1), pages 266-299.
    3. Balduzzi, Pierluigi & Brancati, Emanuele & Schiantarelli, Fabio, 2018. "Financial markets, banks’ cost of funding, and firms’ decisions: Lessons from two crises," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 1-15.
    4. Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
    6. Richard Clarida & Jordi Galí & Mark Gertler, 2000. "Monetary Policy Rules and Macroeconomic Stability: Evidence and Some Theory," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 115(1), pages 147-180.
    7. Patrick Bolton & Xavier Freixas & Leonardo Gambacorta & Paolo Emilio Mistrulli, 2016. "Relationship and Transaction Lending in a Crisis," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 29(10), pages 2643-2676.
    8. Arito Ono & Iichiro Uesugi, 2009. "Role of Collateral and Personal Guarantees in Relationship Lending: Evidence from Japan's SME Loan Market," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 41(5), pages 935-960, August.
    9. Juelsrud, Ragnar E. & Wold, Ella Getz, 2020. "Risk-weighted capital requirements and portfolio rebalancing," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 41(C).
    10. Saleem Bahaj & Angus Foulis & Gabor Pinter, 2020. "Home Values and Firm Behavior," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 110(7), pages 2225-2270, July.
    11. Iyer, Rajkamal & Da-Rocha-Lopes, Samuel & Peydró, José-Luis & Schoar, Antoinette, 2014. "Interbank Liquidity Crunch and the Firm Credit Crunch: Evidence from the 2007-2009 Crisis," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 347-372.
    12. Thakor, Anjan V, 1996. "Capital Requirements, Monetary Policy, and Aggregate Bank Lending: Theory and Empirical Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(1), pages 279-324, March.
    13. Giovanni Dell'Ariccia & Luc Laeven & Gustavo A. Suarez, 2017. "Bank Leverage and Monetary Policy's Risk-Taking Channel: Evidence from the United States," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 72(2), pages 613-654, April.
    14. Augustin Landier & David Sraer & David Thesmar, 2013. "Banks' Exposure to Interest Rate Risk and The Transmission of Monetary Policy," NBER Working Papers 18857, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Bruno, Valentina & Shim, Ilhyock & Shin, Hyun Song, 2017. "Comparative assessment of macroprudential policies," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 183-202.
    16. Borio, Claudio & Zhu, Haibin, 2012. "Capital regulation, risk-taking and monetary policy: A missing link in the transmission mechanism?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 236-251.
    17. Aiyar, Shekhar & Calomiris, Charles W. & Hooley, John & Korniyenko, Yevgeniya & Wieladek, Tomasz, 2014. "The international transmission of bank capital requirements: Evidence from the UK," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 113(3), pages 368-382.
    18. Carmen Fernandez & Eduardo Ley & Mark F. J. Steel, 2001. "Model uncertainty in cross-country growth regressions," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(5), pages 563-576.
    19. Aiyar, Shekhar & Calomiris, Charles W. & Wieladek, Tomasz, 2016. "How does credit supply respond to monetary policy and bank minimum capital requirements?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 142-165.
    20. Edward Nelson, 2000. "UK monetary policy 1972-97: a guide using Taylor rules," Bank of England working papers 120, Bank of England.
    21. Jiménez, Gabriel & Ongena, Steven & Peydró, José-Luis & Saurina, Jesús, 2017. "Macroprudential policy, countercyclical bank capital buffers and credit supply: evidence from the spanish dynamic provisioning experiments," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 2126-2177.
    22. Jiménez, Gabriel & Ongena, Steven & Peydró, José-Luis & Saurina, Jesús, 2012. "Credit Supply and Monetary Policy: Identifying the Bank Balance-Sheet Channel with Loan Applications," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 2301-2326.
    23. Jeremy C. Stein & Anil K. Kashyap, 2000. "What Do a Million Observations on Banks Say about the Transmission of Monetary Policy?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(3), pages 407-428, June.
    24. Jimenez, Gabriel & Salas, Vicente & Saurina, Jesus, 2006. "Determinants of collateral," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(2), pages 255-281, August.
    25. Uluc, Arzu & Wieladek, Tomasz, 2018. "Capital requirements, monetary policy and risk shifting in the mortgage market," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 35(PB), pages 3-16.
    26. De Jonghe, Olivier & Dewachter, Hans & Ongena, Steven, 2020. "Bank capital (requirements) and credit supply: Evidence from pillar 2 decisions," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 60(C).
    27. Kahane, Yehuda, 1977. "Capital adequacy and the regulation of financial intermediaries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 207-218, October.
    28. Henri Fraisse & Mathias Lé & David Thesmar, 2020. "The Real Effects of Bank Capital Requirements," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 66(1), pages 5-23, January.
    29. Shekhar Aiyar & Charles W. Calomiris & Tomasz Wieladek, 2014. "Identifying channels of credit substitution when bank capital requirements are varied [Which financial frictions? Parsing the evidence from the financial crisis]," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 29(77), pages 45-77.
    30. Asim Ijaz Khwaja & Atif Mian, 2008. "Tracing the Impact of Bank Liquidity Shocks: Evidence from an Emerging Market," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(4), pages 1413-1442, September.
    31. Bernanke, Ben S & Blinder, Alan S, 1988. "Credit, Money, and Aggregate Demand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(2), pages 435-439, May.
    32. James Cloyne & Patrick Hürtgen, 2016. "The Macroeconomic Effects of Monetary Policy: A New Measure for the United Kingdom," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 8(4), pages 75-102, October.
    33. Brun , Matthieu & Fraisse , Henri & Thesmar , David, 2013. "The Real Effects of Bank Capital Requirements," HEC Research Papers Series 988, HEC Paris.
    34. Cotugno, Matteo & Monferrà, Stefano & Sampagnaro, Gabriele, 2013. "Relationship lending, hierarchical distance and credit tightening: Evidence from the financial crisis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1372-1385.
    35. Federico Cingano & Francesco Manaresi & Enrico Sette, 2016. "Does Credit Crunch Investment Down? New Evidence on the Real Effects of the Bank-Lending Channel," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 29(10), pages 2737-2773.
    36. Cesa-Bianchi, Ambrogio & Thwaites, Gregory & Vicondoa, Alejandro, 2020. "Monetary policy transmission in the United Kingdom: A high frequency identification approach," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 123(C).
    37. Valentina Michelangeli & Enrico Sette, 2016. "How does bank capital affect the supply of mortgages? Evidence from a randomized experiment," BIS Working Papers 557, Bank for International Settlements.
    38. Skander Van den Heuvel, 2006. "The Bank Capital Channel of Monetary Policy," 2006 Meeting Papers 512, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    39. Gabriele Galati & Richhild Moessner, 2013. "Macroprudential Policy – A Literature Review," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(5), pages 846-878, December.
    40. Rajan, Raghuram G, 1992. "Insiders and Outsiders: The Choice between Informed and Arm's-Length Debt," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1367-1400, September.
    41. Myers, Stewart C., 1977. "Determinants of corporate borrowing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-175, November.
    42. Enrico Sette & Giorgio Gobbi, 2015. "Relationship Lending During A Financial Crisis," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 13(3), pages 453-481, June.
    43. Gabriel Jiménez & Steven Ongena & José‐Luis Peydró & Jesús Saurina, 2014. "Hazardous Times for Monetary Policy: What Do Twenty‐Three Million Bank Loans Say About the Effects of Monetary Policy on Credit Risk‐Taking?," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 82(2), pages 463-505, March.
    44. Magnus, Jan R. & Powell, Owen & Prüfer, Patricia, 2010. "A comparison of two model averaging techniques with an application to growth empirics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 154(2), pages 139-153, February.
    45. Sharpe, Steven A, 1990. "Asymmetric Information, Bank Lending, and Implicit Contracts: A Stylized Model of Customer Relationships," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(4), pages 1069-1087, September.
    46. Gabriele Galati & Richhild Moessner, 2018. "What Do We Know About the Effects of Macroprudential Policy?," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 85(340), pages 735-770, October.
    47. Giuseppe De Luca & Jan R. Magnus, 2011. "Bayesian model averaging and weighted-average least squares: Equivariance, stability, and numerical issues," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 11(4), pages 518-544, December.
    48. Isaac Alfon & Isabel Argimón & Patricia Bascuñana-Ambrós, 2005. "How individual capital requirements affect capital ratios in UK banks and building societies," Working Papers 0515, Banco de España.
    49. Taylor, John B. (ed.), 2001. "Monetary Policy Rules," National Bureau of Economic Research Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 1, number 9780226791258, December.
    50. Paolo Angelini & Stefano Neri & Fabio Panetta, 2014. "The Interaction between Capital Requirements and Monetary Policy," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 46(6), pages 1073-1112, September.
    51. Kim, Daesik & Santomero, Anthony M, 1988. " Risk in Banking and Capital Regulation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(5), pages 1219-1233, December.
    52. Xavier Sala-I-Martin & Gernot Doppelhofer & Ronald I. Miller, 2004. "Determinants of Long-Term Growth: A Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates (BACE) Approach," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(4), pages 813-835, September.
    53. Nickell, Stephen J, 1981. "Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1417-1426, November.
    54. Leonardo Gambacorta & Andrés Murcia, 2019. "The impact of macroprudential policies and their interaction with monetary policy: an empirical analysis using credit registry data," IFC Bulletins chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Are post-crisis statistical initiatives completed?, volume 49, Bank for International Settlements.
    55. Benford, James & Nier, Erlend, 2007. "Financial Stability Paper No 3: Monitoring Cyclicality of Basel II Capital Requirements," Bank of England Financial Stability Papers 3, Bank of England.
    56. Skander J. van den Heuvel, 2002. "Does bank capital matter for monetary transmission?," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 8(May), pages 259-265.
    57. Jiminez, G. & Ongena, S. & Saurina, J., 2007. "Hazardous Times for Monetary Policy : What do Twenty-three Million Bank Loans Say about the Effects of Monetary Policy on Credit Risk?," Other publications TiSEM 9ed34391-f9ca-451b-9b25-c, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    58. Frederick T. Furlong, 1988. "Changes in bank risk," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue mar25.
    59. Tolga Ediz & Ian Michael & William Perraudin, 1998. "The impact of capital requirements on U.K. bank behaviour," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 4(Oct), pages 15-22.
    60. Boot, Arnoud W. A., 2000. "Relationship Banking: What Do We Know?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 7-25, January.
    61. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. "The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
    62. Malcolm Baker & Jeffrey Wurgler, 2015. "Do Strict Capital Requirements Raise the Cost of Capital? Bank Regulation, Capital Structure, and the Low-Risk Anomaly," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 105(5), pages 315-320, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Acharya, Viral V. & Bergant, Katharina & Crosignani, Matteo & Eisert, Tim & McCann, Fergal, 2020. "The Anatomy of the Transmission of Macroprudential Policies," CEPR Discussion Papers 14959, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Marina-Eliza Spaliara & Serafeim Tsoukas & Paul Lavery, 2021. "Private equity and bank capital requirements: Evidence from European firms," Working Papers 2021_11, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow.
    3. Konstantin Makrelov & Rob Davies & Laurence Harris, 2021. "The impact of higher leverage ratios on the South African economy," Studies in Economics and Econometrics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(3), pages 184-207, July.
    4. de-Ramon, Sebastian J.A. & Francis, William B. & Harris, Qun, 2022. "Bank-specific capital requirements and capital management from 1989-2013: Further evidence from the UK," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 138(C).
    5. Mary Everett & Jakob de Haan & David‐Jan Jansen & Peter McQuade & Anna Samarina, 2021. "Mortgage lending, monetary policy, and prudential measures in small euro‐area economies: Evidence from Ireland and the Netherlands," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(1), pages 117-143, February.
    6. Jon Frost & Patty Duijm & Clemens Bonner & Leo Haan & Jakob Haan, 2019. "International Lending of Dutch Insurers and Pension Funds: the Impact of ECB Monetary Policy and Prudential Policies in the Host Country," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 445-456, July.
    7. Acosta-Smith, Jonathan & Arnould, Guillaume & Milonas, Kristoffer & Vo, Quynh-Anh, 2019. "Capital and liquidity interaction in banking," Bank of England working papers 840, Bank of England, revised 22 Jun 2020.
    8. Björn Imbierowicz & Axel Löffler & Ursula Vogel, 2021. "The transmission of bank capital requirements and monetary policy to bank lending in Germany," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(1), pages 144-164, February.
    9. De Jonghe, Olivier & Dewachter, Hans & Ongena, Steven, 2020. "Bank capital (requirements) and credit supply: Evidence from pillar 2 decisions," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 60(C).
    10. Matthieu Bussière & Robert Hills & Simon Lloyd & Baptiste Meunier & Justine Pedrono & Dennis Reinhardt & Rhiannon Sowerbutts, 2021. "Le Pont de Londres: Interactions between monetary and prudential policies in cross‐border lending," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(1), pages 61-86, February.
    11. Tuuli, Saara, 2019. "Model-based regulation and firms' access to finance," Research Discussion Papers 4/2019, Bank of Finland.
    12. Matthieu Bussière & Jin Cao & Jakob de Haan & Robert Hills & Simon Lloyd & Baptiste Meunier & Justine Pedrono & Dennis Reinhardt & Sonalika Sinha & Rhiannon Sowerbutts & Konstantin Styrin, 2021. "The interaction between macroprudential policy and monetary policy: Overview," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(1), pages 1-19, February.
    13. Imbierowicz, Björn & Löffler, Axel & Vogel, Ursula, 2019. "The transmission of bank capital requirements and monetary policy to bank lending," Discussion Papers 49/2019, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    14. Dafermos, Yannis & Nikolaidi, Maria, 2021. "How can green differentiated capital requirements affect climate risks? A dynamic macrofinancial analysis," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 54(C).
    15. de Ramon, Sebastian & Francis, William & Milonas, Kristoffer, 2017. "An overview of the UK banking sector since the Basel Accord: insights from a new regulatory database," Bank of England working papers 652, Bank of England.
    16. Lubberink, Martien, 2020. "Max Headroom: Discretionary Capital Buffers and Bank Risk," MPRA Paper 100445, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Benchimol, Jonathan & Gamrasni, Inon & Kahn, Michael & Ribon, Sigal & Saadon, Yossi & Ben-Ze’ev, Noam & Segal, Asaf & Shizgal, Yitzchak, 2022. "The interaction between domestic monetary policy and macroprudential policy in Israel," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 112(C).
    18. Bahaj, Saleem & Malherbe, Frédéric, 2016. "A positive analysis of bank behaviour under capital requirements," CEPR Discussion Papers 11607, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    19. Uluc, Arzu & Wieladek, Tomasz, 2018. "Capital requirements, monetary policy and risk shifting in the mortgage market," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 35(PB), pages 3-16.
    20. O. Borzykh., 2017. "The impact of banks’ capital adequacy ratio on bank lending channel of monetary transmission in Russia," VOPROSY ECONOMIKI, N.P. Redaktsiya zhurnala "Voprosy Economiki", vol. 7.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Uluc, Arzu & Wieladek, Tomasz, 2018. "Capital requirements, monetary policy and risk shifting in the mortgage market," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 35(PB), pages 3-16.
    2. Altavilla, Carlo & Laeven, Luc & Peydró, José Luis, 2020. "Monetary and Macroprudential Policy Complementarities: evidence from European credit registers," CEPR Discussion Papers 15539, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Ozan Güler & Mike Mariathasan & Klaas Mulier & Nejat G. Okatan, 2021. "The real effects of banks' corporate credit supply: A literature review," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 59(3), pages 1252-1285, July.
    4. Degryse, Hans & Karapetyan, Artashes & Karmakar, Sudipto, 2021. "To ask or not to ask? Bank capital requirements and loan collateralization," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 142(1), pages 239-260.
    5. Aiyar, Shekhar & Calomiris, Charles W. & Wieladek, Tomasz, 2016. "How does credit supply respond to monetary policy and bank minimum capital requirements?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 142-165.
    6. Cappelletti, Giuseppe & Reghezza, Alessio & Rodriguez d’Acri, Costanza & Spaggiari, Martina, 2020. "Compositional effects of O-SII capital buffers and the role of monetary policy," Working Paper Series 2440, European Central Bank.
    7. Uluc, Arzu & Wieladek, Tomasz, 2015. "Capital requirements, risk shifting and the mortgage market," Bank of England working papers 572, Bank of England.
    8. Peydró, José-Luis & Polo, Andrea & Sette, Enrico, 2021. "Monetary policy at work: Security and credit application registers evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 140(3), pages 789-814.
    9. David Martinez-Miera & Rafael Repullo, 2019. "Monetary Policy, Macroprudential Policy, and Financial Stability," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 11(1), pages 809-832, August.
    10. Bottero, Margherita & Minoiu, Camelia & Peydro, Jose-Luis & Polo, Andrea & Presbitero, Andrea & Sette, Enrico, 2019. "Expansionary Yet Different: Credit Supply and Real Effects of Negative Interest Rate Policy," CEPR Discussion Papers 14233, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    11. Beatriz, Mikael & Coffinet, Jérôme & Nicolas, Théo, 2022. "Relationship lending and SMEs’ funding costs over the cycle: Why diversification of borrowing matters," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 138(C).
    12. Beutler, Toni & Bichsel, Robert & Bruhin, Adrian & Danton, Jayson, 2020. "The impact of interest rate risk on bank lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 115(C).
    13. Banerjee, Ryan N. & Gambacorta, Leonardo & Sette, Enrico, 2021. "The real effects of relationship lending✰," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 48(C).
    14. Cappelletti, Giuseppe & Reghezza, Alessio & Rodríguez d'Acri, Costanza & Spaggiari, Martina, 2022. "Compositional effects of bank capital buffers and interactions with monetary policy," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 140(C).
    15. van Holle, Frederiek, 2017. "Essays in empirical finance and monetary policy," Other publications TiSEM 30d11a4b-7bc9-4c81-ad24-5, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    16. Stijn Claessens & M Ayhan Kose, 2018. "Frontiers of macrofinancial linkages," BIS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 95.
    17. Gambacorta, Leonardo & Shin, Hyun Song, 2018. "Why bank capital matters for monetary policy," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 35(PB), pages 17-29.
    18. Ms. Camelia Minoiu & Mr. Andrea F Presbitero & José-Luis Peydró & Enrico Sette & Andrea Polo & Margherita Bottero, 2019. "Negative Monetary Policy Rates and Portfolio Rebalancing: Evidence from Credit Register Data," IMF Working Papers 2019/044, International Monetary Fund.
    19. Bottero, Margherita & Minoiu, Camelia & Peydró, José-Luis & Polo, Andrea & Presbitero, Andrea F. & Sette, Enrico, 2022. "Expansionary yet different: Credit supply and real effects of negative interest rate policy," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 146(2), pages 754-778.
    20. De Jonghe, Olivier & Dewachter, Hans & Ongena, Steven, 2020. "Bank capital (requirements) and credit supply: Evidence from pillar 2 decisions," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 60(C).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Capital requirements; firm-level data; SMEs; relationship lending; macroprudential and monetary policy;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:boe:boeewp:0573. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/boegvuk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Digital Media Team (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/boegvuk.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.