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Identifying channels of credit substitution when bank capital requirements are varied

Author

Listed:
  • Aiyar, Shekhar

    () (International Monetary Fund)

  • Calomiris , Charles

    () (Columbia Business School, International Monetary Fund and NBER)

  • Wieladek, Tomasz

    () (Bank of England)

Abstract

What kinds of credit substitution, if any, occur when changes to banks’ minimum capital requirements induce banks to change their supply of credit? The question is central to the new ‘macroprudential’ policy regimes that have been constructed in the wake of the global financial crisis, under which minimum capital ratio requirements for banks will be employed to control the supply of bank credit. Regulatory efforts to influence the aggregate supply of credit may be thwarted to some degree by ‘leakages’, as other credit suppliers substitute for the variation induced in the supply of credit by regulated banks. Credit substitution could occur through foreign banks operating domestic branches that are not subject to capital regulation by the domestic supervisor, or through bond and stock markets. The UK experience for the period 1998-2007 is ideally suited to address these questions, given its unique regulatory history (UK bank regulators imposed bank-specific and time-varying capital requirements on regulated banks), the substantial presence of both domestically regulated and foreign regulated banks, and the United Kingdom’s deep capital markets. We show that leakage by foreign branches can occur either as a result of competition between branches and regulated banks that are parts of separate banking groups, or because a foreign banking group shifts loans from its UK-regulated subsidiary to its affiliated branch. The responsiveness of affiliated branches is nearly twice as strong. We do not find any evidence for leakages through capital markets. These findings reinforce the need for the type of international co-ordination, specifically reciprocity in capital requirement regulation, which is embedded in Basel III and the European CRD IV directive, which will be gradually phased in starting January 2014.

Suggested Citation

  • Aiyar, Shekhar & Calomiris , Charles & Wieladek, Tomasz, 2014. "Identifying channels of credit substitution when bank capital requirements are varied," Bank of England working papers 485, Bank of England.
  • Handle: RePEc:boe:boeewp:0485
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    Blog mentions

    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Higher capital requirements didn't slow the economy
      by Steve Cecchetti and Kim Schoenholtz in Money, Banking and Financial Markets on 2014-12-15 19:37:22

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    Cited by:

    1. Aiyar, Shekhar & Calomiris, Charles W. & Hooley, John & Korniyenko, Yevgeniya & Wieladek, Tomasz, 2014. "The international transmission of bank capital requirements: Evidence from the UK," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 113(3), pages 368-382.
    2. Aiyar, Shekhar & Calomiris, Charles W. & Wieladek, Tomasz, 2016. "How does credit supply respond to monetary policy and bank minimum capital requirements?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 142-165.
    3. Danisewicz, Piotr & Reinhardt, Dennis & Sowerbutts, Rhiannon, 2017. "On a tight leash: Does bank organizational structure matter for macroprudential spillovers?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 174-194.
    4. Cecchetti, Stephen G., 2016. "On the separation of monetary and prudential policy: How much of the precrisis consensus remains?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 157-169.
    5. Faia, Ester & Weder, Beatrice, 2016. "Cross-Border Resolution of Global Banks: Bail in under Single Point of Entry versus Multiple Points of Entry," CEPR Discussion Papers 11171, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. repec:oup:revfin:v:21:y:2017:i:1:p:201-236. is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Engel, Charles, 2016. "Macroprudential policy under high capital mobility: policy implications from an academic perspective," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 162-172.
    8. De-Ramon, sebastian & Straughan, Michael, 2017. "The economic cost of capital: a VECM approach for estimating and testing the banking sector's response to changes in capital ratios," Bank of England working papers 663, Bank of England.
    9. Eugenio Cerutti & Stijn Claessens, 2017. "The Great Cross-Border Bank Deleveraging: Supply Constraints and Intra-Group Frictions," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 21(1), pages 201-236.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Macroprudential regulation; credit substitution; leakages;

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation

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