IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/b/elg/eebook/15370.html
   My bibliography  Save this book

Confronting the Shadow Economy

Author

Listed:
  • Colin C. Williams

Abstract

Beginning with a review of the extent of undeclared work, the author discusses the discrepancies between regions and the potential impacts of the economic crisis, comparing the nature of the potential solutions available with those actually adopted. The way forward, the book concludes, is to move away from increasing the costs of engaging in hidden work using repressive measures, and concentrate more on developing initiatives that enhance the benefits of engaging in declared work and increase the likelihood of compliance by engendering a commitment to tax morality.

Suggested Citation

  • Colin C. Williams, 2014. "Confronting the Shadow Economy," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 15370.
  • Handle: RePEc:elg:eebook:15370
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.elgaronline.com/view/9781782546030.xml
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Richard White & Colin Williams, 2010. "Re-thinking Monetary Exchange: Some Lessons from England," Review of Social Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 68(3), pages 317-338.
    2. repec:wsi:jdexxx:v:14:y:2009:i:01:n:s1084946709001144 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Benno Torgler & Jan Werner, 2005. "Fiscal Autonomy and Tax Morale: Evidence from Germany," CREMA Working Paper Series 2005-07, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
    4. Benno Torgler & Christoph A. Schaltegger, 2005. "Tax Amnesties and Political Participation," Public Finance Review, , vol. 33(3), pages 403-431, May.
    5. James Alm & Erich Kirchler & Stephan Muehlbacher & Katharina Gangl & Eva Hofmann & Christoph Kogler & Maria Pollai, 2012. "Rethinking the Research Paradigms for Analyzing Tax Compliance Behavior," Working Papers 1210, Tulane University, Department of Economics.
    6. David E. A. Giles, 1999. "Modelling the hidden economy and the tax-gap in New Zealand," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 24(4), pages 621-640.
    7. Tonin, Mirco, 2007. "Minimum wage and tax evasion: theory," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 0711, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
    8. Mikesell, John L. & Ross, Justin M., 2012. "Fast Money? The Contribution of State Tax Amnesties to Public Revenue Systems," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 65(3), pages 529-562, September.
    9. Tonin, Mirco, 2007. "Minimum wage and tax evasion: theory," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 711, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
    10. Weigel, Russell H. & Hessing, Dick J. & Elffers, Henk, 1987. "Tax evasion research: A critical appraisal and theoretical model," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 215-235, June.
    11. Li, Sherry Xin & Eckel, Catherine C. & Grossman, Philip J. & Brown, Tara Larson, 2011. "Giving to government: Voluntary taxation in the lab," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(9-10), pages 1190-1201, October.
    12. Zoë Kuehn, 2014. "Tax Rates, Governance, And The Informal Economy In High-Income Countries," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 52(1), pages 405-430, January.
    13. Robert W. McGee, & Arsen M. Djatej, & Robert H. S. Sarikas,, 2012. "The Ethics Of Tax Evasion: A Survey Of Hispanic Opinion," Accounting & Taxation, The Institute for Business and Finance Research, vol. 4(1), pages 53-74.
    14. Alm, James & Cherry, Todd & Jones, Michael & McKee, Michael, 2010. "Taxpayer information assistance services and tax compliance behavior," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 577-586, August.
    15. Halla Martin, 2012. "Tax Morale and Compliance Behavior: First Evidence on a Causal Link," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 12(1), pages 1-27, April.
    16. Friedrich Schneider (ed.), 2008. "The Economics of the Hidden Economy," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, volume 0, number 3074.
    17. Gary S. Becker, 1974. "Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach," NBER Chapters,in: Essays in the Economics of Crime and Punishment, pages 1-54 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Friedrich Schneider & Christopher Bajada, 2003. "The Size and Development of the Shadow Economies in the Asia-Pacific," Economics working papers 2003-01, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    19. Schneider, Friedrich, 2005. "Shadow economies around the world: what do we really know?," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 598-642, September.
    20. Cullis, John G. & Lewis, Alan, 1997. "Why people pay taxes: From a conventional economic model to a model of social convention," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 18(2-3), pages 305-321, April.
    21. Frey, Bruno S. & Torgler, Benno, 2007. "Tax morale and conditional cooperation," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 136-159, March.
    22. Caridi, Paolo & Passerini, Paolo, 2001. "The Underground Economy, the Demand for Currency Approach and the Analysis of Discrepancies: Some Recent European Experience," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 47(2), pages 239-250, June.
    23. Putniņš, Tālis J. & Sauka, Arnis, 2015. "Measuring the shadow economy using company managers," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 471-490.
    24. Apel,M., 1994. "An Expenditure-Based Estimate of Tax Evasion in Sweden," Papers 1, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
    25. Lars P. Feld & Bruno S. Frey, 2002. "Trust breeds trust: How taxpayers are treated," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 3(2), pages 87-99, July.
    26. Richard M Bird & Eric M Zolt, 2008. "Tax Policy in Emerging Countries," Environment and Planning C, , vol. 26(1), pages 73-86, February.
    27. Giles, David E A, 1999. "Measuring the Hidden Economy: Implications for Econometric Modelling," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(456), pages 370-380, June.
    28. Coricelli, Giorgio & Rusconi, Elena & Villeval, Marie Claire, 2014. "Tax evasion and emotions: An empirical test of re-integrative shaming theory," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 49-61.
    29. Dong, Bin & Dulleck, Uwe & Torgler, Benno, 2012. "Conditional corruption," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 609-627.
    30. repec:wsi:jdexxx:v:18:y:2013:i:01:n:s1084946713500040 is not listed on IDEAS
    31. James Andreoni & Brian Erard & Jonathan Feinstein, 1998. "Tax Compliance," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 36(2), pages 818-860, June.
    32. Elffers, Henk & Hessing, Dick J., 1997. "Influencing the prospects of tax evasion," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 18(2-3), pages 289-304, April.
    33. Hite, Peggy A, 1989. "A Positive Approach to Taxpayer Compliance," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 44(2), pages 249-267.
    34. Kent Matthews & Jean Lloyd-Williams, 2001. "The VAT-Evading Firm and VAT Evasion: An Empirical Analysis," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(1), pages 39-49.
    35. Jaanika Meriküll & Karsten Staehr, 2010. "Unreported Employment and Envelope Wages in Mid-Transition: Comparing Developments and Causes in the Baltic Countries," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 52(4), pages 637-670, December.
    36. Tonin, Mirco, 2011. "Minimum wage and tax evasion: Theory and evidence," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(11), pages 1635-1651.
    37. Baldry, J. C., 1986. "Tax evasion is not a gamble : A report on two experiments," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 333-335.
    38. Katharina Gangl & Stephan Muehlbacher & Manon de Groot & Sjoerd Goslinga & Eva Hofmann & Christoph Kogler & Gerrit Antonides & Erich Kirchler, 2013. ""How can I help you?" Perceived Service Orientation of Tax Authorities and Tax Compliance," FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 69(4), pages 487-510, December.
    39. Ann Hansford & John Hasseldine & Carole Howorth, 2003. "Factors affecting the costs of UK VAT compliance for small and medium-sized enterprises," Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 21(4), pages 479-492, August.
    40. Alm, James & McClelland, Gary H. & Schulze, William D., 1992. "Why do people pay taxes?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 21-38, June.
    41. Cummings, Ronald G. & Martinez-Vazquez, Jorge & McKee, Michael & Torgler, Benno, 2009. "Tax morale affects tax compliance: Evidence from surveys and an artefactual field experiment," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 70(3), pages 447-457, June.
    42. Günther, Isabel & Launov, Andrey, 2012. "Informal employment in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 88-98.
    43. Hug, Simon & Spörri, Franziska, 2011. "Referendums, trust, and tax evasion," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 120-131, March.
    44. Benno Torgler & Jan Werner, 2005. "Tax Morale and Fiscal Autonomy: Evidence from Germany," Working Papers 03-2005, Institute of Local Public Finance.
    45. de Juan, Ana & Lasheras, Miguel A & Mayo, Rafaela, 1994. "Voluntary Tax Compliant Behavior of Spanish Income Tax Payers," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 49(Supplemen), pages 90-105.
    46. Alm, James & Sanchez, Isabel & de Juan, Ana, 1995. "Economic and Noneconomic Factors in Tax Compliance," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(1), pages 3-18.
    47. Olumide TAIWO, 2013. "Employment choice and mobility in multi-sector labour markets: Theoretical model and evidence from Ghana," International Labour Review, International Labour Organization, vol. 152(3-4), pages 469-492, December.
    48. Chong, Alberto & Gradstein, Mark, 2007. "Inequality and informality," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1-2), pages 159-179, February.
    49. Liliane Karlinger, 2014. "The “Dark Side” of Deregulation: How Competition Affects the Size of the Shadow Economy," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 16(2), pages 293-321, April.
    50. Kirchler, Erich, 1999. "Reactance to taxation: Employers' attitudes towards taxes," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 131-138, July.
    51. Hudson John & Williams Colin & Nadin Sara & Orviska Marta, 2012. "Evaluating the Impact of the Informal Economy on Businesses in South East Europe: Some Lessons from the 2009 World Bank Enterprise Survey," South East European Journal of Economics and Business, Sciendo, vol. 7(1), pages 99-110, April.
    52. James Alm & Benno Torgler, 2012. "Do Ethics Matter? Tax Compliance and Morality," Working Papers 1207, Tulane University, Department of Economics.
    53. Webb, Justin W. & Bruton, Garry D. & Tihanyi, Laszlo & Ireland, R. Duane, 2013. "Research on entrepreneurship in the informal economy: Framing a research agenda," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 598-614.
    54. Franzoni, Luigi Alberto, 2000. "Amnesties, Settlements and Optimal Tax Enforcement," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 67(266), pages 153-176, May.
    55. Gorana Krstić & Peter Sanfey, 2011. "Earnings inequality and the informal economy," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 19(1), pages 179-199, January.
    56. Blumenthal, Marsha & Christian, Charles W. & Slemrod, Joel, 2001. "Do Normative Appeals Affect Tax Compliance? Evidence from a Controlled Experiment in Minnesota," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 54(n. 1), pages 125-38, March.
    57. Dubin, Jeffrey A. & Wilde, Louis L., 1988. "An Empirical Analysis of Federal Income Tax Auditing and Compliance," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 41(1), pages 61-74, March.
    58. Tanya Chavdarova, 2014. "Risky Businesses? Young People in Informal Self-Employment in Sofia," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(6), pages 2060-2077, November.
    59. Guglielmo Barone & Sauro Mocetti, 2011. "Tax morale and public spending inefficiency," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 18(6), pages 724-749, December.
    60. Alm, James & McKee, Michael J. & Beck, William, 1990. "Amazing Grace: Tax Amnesties and Compliance," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 43(1), pages 23-37, March.
    61. Joel Slemrod, 2007. "Cheating Ourselves: The Economics of Tax Evasion," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(1), pages 25-48, Winter.
    62. Joel Slemrod & Shlomo Yitzhaki, 1994. "Analyzing the standard deduction as a presumptive tax," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 1(1), pages 25-34, February.
    63. Benno Torgler & Christoph A. Schaltegger, 2005. "Tax Morale and Fiscal Policy," CREMA Working Paper Series 2005-30, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
    64. Alm, James & Torgler, Benno, 2006. "Culture differences and tax morale in the United States and in Europe," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 224-246, April.
    65. Slemrod, Joel & Blumenthal, Marsha & Christian, Charles, 2001. "Taxpayer response to an increased probability of audit: evidence from a controlled experiment in Minnesota," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(3), pages 455-483, March.
    66. Nigar Hashimzade & Gareth D. Myles & Binh Tran-Nam, 2013. "Applications Of Behavioural Economics To Tax Evasion," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(5), pages 941-977, December.
    67. Elffers, Henk & Weigel, Russell H. & Hessing, Dick J., 1987. "The consequences of different strategies for measuring tax evasion behavior," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 311-337, September.
    68. Mauro Marè & Antonello Motroni & Francesco Porcelli, 2015. "Family Ties and Underground Economy," Working papers 16, Società Italiana di Economia Pubblica.
    69. Colin C Williams, 2001. "Tackling the participation of the unemployed in paid informal work: a critical evaluation of the deterrence approach," Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 19(5), pages 729-749, October.
    70. Veronica AMARANTE & Ivone PERAZZO, 2013. "Uruguay's “single tax” social protection scheme for the self-employed," International Labour Review, International Labour Organization, vol. 152(3-4), pages 559-575, December.
    71. Birgit Pfau-Effinger, 2009. "Varieties of Undeclared Work in European Societies," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 47(1), pages 79-99, March.
    72. Adams, Caroline & Webley, Paul, 2001. "Small business owners' attitudes on VAT compliance in the UK," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 195-216, April.
    73. Brian Erard & Jonathan S. Feinstein, 1994. "Honesty and Evasion in the Tax Compliance Game," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(1), pages 1-19, Spring.
    74. Lindsay Tedds, 2010. "Keeping it off the books: an empirical investigation of firms that engage in tax evasion," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(19), pages 2459-2473.
    75. Torgler, Benno, 2006. "The importance of faith: Tax morale and religiosity," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 81-109, September.
    76. Anna Alon & Amy Hageman, 2013. "The Impact of Corruption on Firm Tax Compliance in Transition Economies: Whom Do You Trust?," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 116(3), pages 479-494, September.
    77. Maloney, William F., 2004. "Informality Revisited," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(7), pages 1159-1178, July.
    78. Ana Maria Oviedo & Mark R. Thomas & Kamer Karakurum-Ozdemir, 2009. "Economic Informality : Causes, Costs, and Policies - A Literature Survey," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 5917, November.
    79. J. J. Thomas, 1988. "The Politics of the Black Economy," Work, Employment & Society, British Sociological Association, vol. 2(2), pages 169-190, June.
    80. Kirchler, Erich & Hoelzl, Erik & Wahl, Ingrid, 2008. "Enforced versus voluntary tax compliance: The "slippery slope" framework," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 210-225, April.
    81. Ted London & Stuart L Hart, 2004. "Reinventing strategies for emerging markets: beyond the transnational model," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 35(5), pages 350-370, September.
    82. Friedrich Schneider, 2003. "The Size and Development of the Shadow Economy around the World and Relation to the Hard-to-Tax," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0324, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
    83. Macho-Stadler, Ines & Olivella, Pau & Perez-Castrillo, David, 1999. " Tax Amnesties in a Dynamic Model of Tax Evasion," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 1(4), pages 439-463.
    84. Bernasconi, Michele, 1998. "Tax evasion and orders of risk aversion," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 123-134, January.
    85. Eliza Ahmed & Valerie Braithwaite, 2004. "When Tax Collectors Become Collectors for Child Support and Student Loans: Jeopardizing the Revenue Base?," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(3), pages 303-326, August.
    86. Kirchler, Erich, 1997. "The burden of new taxes: acceptance of taxes as a function of affectedness and egoistic versus altruistic orientation," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 421-437.
    87. Kirchler,Erich, 2007. "The Economic Psychology of Tax Behaviour," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521876742.
    88. Friedrich Schneider, 2005. "Shadow Economies of 145 Countries all over the World: What Do We Really Know?," CREMA Working Paper Series 2005-13, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
    89. Williams Colin, 2009. "Evaluating the Extent and Nature of ‘Envelope Wages’ in the European Union: A Geographical Analysis," European Spatial Research and Policy, Sciendo, vol. 16(1), pages 115-129, June.
    90. Kastlunger, Barbara & Kirchler, Erich & Mittone, Luigi & Pitters, Julia, 2009. "Sequences of audits, tax compliance, and taxpaying strategies," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 405-418, June.
    91. Henrik Jacobsen Kleven & Martin B. Knudsen & Claus Thustrup Kreiner & Søren Pedersen & Emmanuel Saez, 2011. "Unwilling or Unable to Cheat? Evidence From a Tax Audit Experiment in Denmark," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 79(3), pages 651-692, May.
    92. Allingham, Michael G. & Sandmo, Agnar, 1972. "Income tax evasion: a theoretical analysis," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(3-4), pages 323-338, November.
    93. Torgler, Benno, 2003. "To evade taxes or not to evade: that is the question," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 283-302, July.
    94. Marsha Blumenthal & Charles Christian & Joel Slemrod, 1998. "The Determinants of Income Tax Compliance: Evidence from a Controlled Experiment in Minnesota," NBER Working Papers 6575, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    95. Ernst Fehr & Bettina Rockenbach, 2003. "Detrimental effects of sanctions on human altruism," Microeconomics 0305007, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    96. Charles Woolfson, 2007. "Pushing the envelope: the `informalization' of labour in post-communist new EU member states," Work, Employment & Society, British Sociological Association, vol. 21(3), pages 551-564, September.
    97. Colin C. Williams & Kwame Adom & Sara Nadin & Youssef A. Youssef, 2012. "Gender variations in the reasons for engaging in informal sector entrepreneurship: some lessons from urban Brazil," International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 17(4), pages 478-494.
    98. Isachsen, Arne Jon & Strom, Steiner, 1985. "The Size and Growth of the Hidden Economy in Norway," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 31(1), pages 21-38, March.
    99. Julio López-Laborda & Fernando Rodrigo, 2003. "Tax Amnesties and Income Tax Compliance: The Case of Spain," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 24(1), pages 73-96, March.
    100. Gaetano Lisi, 2012. "Unemployment, tax evasion and the slippery slope framework," International Review of Economics, Springer;Happiness Economics and Interpersonal Relations (HEIRS), vol. 59(3), pages 297-302, September.
    101. Vossler, Christian A. & McKee, Michael & Jones, Michael, 2011. "Some effects of tax information services reliability and availability on tax reporting behavior," MPRA Paper 38870, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    102. Jorge Martinez-Vazquez & Benno Torgler, 2009. "The Evolution of Tax Morale in Modern Spain," Journal of Economic Issues, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(1), pages 1-28.
    103. Kastlunger, Barbara & Lozza, Edoardo & Kirchler, Erich & Schabmann, Alfred, 2013. "Powerful authorities and trusting citizens: The Slippery Slope Framework and tax compliance in Italy," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 36-45.
    104. Spicer, M W & Lundstedt, S B, 1976. "Understanding Tax Evasion," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 31(2), pages 295-305.
    105. Friedrich Schneider & Andreas Buehn & Claudio Montenegro, 2010. "New Estimates for the Shadow Economies all over the World," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(4), pages 443-461.
    106. ., 2000. "Information costs and the division of labor," Chapters,in: Macroeconomic Instability and Coordination, chapter 14 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    107. Torgler, Benno, 2011. "Tax morale and compliance : review of evidence and case studies for Europe," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5922, The World Bank.
    108. Andrew Dilnot & C. N. Miller, 1981. "What do we know about the black economy?," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 2(1), pages 58-73, March.
    109. Johannes Koettl & Truman Packard & Claudio E. Montenegro, 2012. "In From the Shadow : Integrating Europe's Informal Labor," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 9377, November.
    110. Rainer Neef, 2002. "Aspects of the Informal Economy in a Transforming Country: The Case of Romania," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(2), pages 299-322, June.
    111. Jeremy de Beer & Kun Fu & Sacha Wunsch-Vincent, 2013. "The informal economy, innovation and intellectual property - Concepts, metrics and policy considerations," WIPO Economic Research Working Papers 10, World Intellectual Property Organization - Economics and Statistics Division.
    112. Kirchler, Erich, 1998. "Differential representations of taxes: Analysis of free associations and judgments of five employment groups," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 117-131.
    113. Eriksen, Knut & Fallan, Lars, 1996. "Tax knowledge and attitudes towards taxation; A report on a quasi-experiment," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 387-402, June.
    114. Lemieux, Thomas & Fortin, Bernard & Frechette, Pierre, 1994. "The Effect of Taxes on Labor Supply in the Underground Economy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(1), pages 231-254, March.
    115. Bhattacharyya, Dilip K, 1990. "An Econometric Method of Estimating the 'Hidden Economy,' United Kingdom (1960-1984): Estimates and Tests," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 100(402), pages 703-717, September.
    116. Alm, James & Jackson, Betty R. & McKee, Michael, 1993. "Fiscal exchange, collective decision institutions, and tax compliance," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 285-303, December.
    117. Lago-Peñas, Ignacio & Lago-Peñas, Santiago, 2010. "The determinants of tax morale in comparative perspective: Evidence from European countries," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 441-453, December.
    118. Kazemier, Brugt & van Eck, Rob, 1992. "Survey investigations of the hidden economy : Some methodological results," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 569-587, December.
    119. Loayza, Norman V. & Rigolini, Jamele, 2011. "Informal Employment: Safety Net or Growth Engine?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 1503-1515, September.
    120. Frey, Bruno S, 1997. "A Constitution for Knaves Crowds Out Civic Virtues," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(443), pages 1043-1053, July.
    121. Jorge Martinz-Vazquez & Benno Torgler, 2005. "The Evolution of Tax Morale in Modern Spain," CREMA Working Paper Series 2005-33, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
    122. James Alm & Benno Torgler, 2011. "Do Ethics Matter? Tax Compliance and Morality," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 101(4), pages 635-651, July.
    123. Colin C. Williams & Abbi Kedir & Meryem Fethi & Sara Nadin, 2012. "Evaluating 'Varieties of Capitalism' by the Extent and Nature of the Informal Economy: The Case of South-Eastern Europe," South-Eastern Europe Journal of Economics, Association of Economic Universities of South and Eastern Europe and the Black Sea Region, vol. 10(2), pages 113-130.
    124. Benno Torgler, 2005. "Tax morale in Latin America," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 122(1), pages 133-157, January.
    125. Bergman, Marcelo & Nevarez, Armando, 2006. "Do Audits Enhance Compliance? An Empirical Assessment of VAT Enforcement," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 59(4), pages 817-832, December.
    126. Friedman, Eric & Johnson, Simon & Kaufmann, Daniel & Zoido-Lobaton, Pablo, 2000. "Dodging the grabbing hand: the determinants of unofficial activity in 69 countries," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 459-493, June.
    127. Trevor Breusch, 2005. "Estimating the Underground Economy using MIMIC Models," Econometrics 0507003, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 15 Dec 2005.
    128. James Alm & Erich Kirchler & Stephan Muehlbacher & Katharina Gangl & Eva Hofmann & Christoph Kogler & Maria Pollai, 2012. "Rethinking the Research Paradigms for Analysing Tax Compliance Behaviour," CESifo Forum, Ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 13(2), pages 33-40, July.
    129. Isachsen, Arne Jon & Strøm, Steinar, 1985. "The Size and Growth of the Hidden Economy in Norway," MPRA Paper 80748, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 1985.
    130. Friedland, Nehemiah & Maital, Shlomo & Rutenberg, Aryeh, 1978. "A simulation study of income tax evasion," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 107-116, August.
    131. Kaitelidou, Daphne Ch. & Tsirona, Christina S. & Galanis, Petros A. & Siskou, Olga Ch. & Mladovsky, Philipa & Kouli, Eugenia G. & Prezerakos, Panagiotis E. & Theodorou, Mamas & Sourtzi, Panagiota A. &, 2013. "Informal payments for maternity health services in public hospitals in Greece," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 109(1), pages 23-30.
    132. Dubin, Jeffrey A. & Wilde, Louis L., 1988. "An Empirical Analysis of Federal Income Tax Auditing and Compliance," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 41(1), pages 61-74, March.
    133. Dubin, Jeffrey A & Graetz, Michael J & Wilde, Louis L, 1987. "Are We a Nation of Tax Cheaters? New Econometric Evidence on Tax Compliance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(2), pages 240-245, May.
    134. Juin-jen Chang & Ching-chong Lai, 2004. "Collaborative tax evasion and social norms: why deterrence does not work," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 56(2), pages 344-368, April.
    135. Alm, James & McKee, Michael J. & Beck, William, 1990. "Amazing Grace: Tax Amnesties and Compliance," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 43(1), pages 23-37, March.
    136. Juan Molero & Francesc Pujol, 2012. "Walking Inside the Potential Tax Evader’s Mind: Tax Morale Does Matter," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 105(2), pages 151-162, January.
    137. Torgler, Benno, 2005. "Tax morale and direct democracy," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 525-531, June.
    138. Murphy, Kristina, 2008. "Enforcing Tax Compliance: To Punish or Persuade?," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 113-135, March.
    139. Uma RANI & Patrick BELSER & Martin OELZ & Setareh RANJBAR, 2013. "Minimum wage coverage and compliance in developing countries," International Labour Review, International Labour Organization, vol. 152(3-4), pages 381-410, December.
    140. Blumenthal, Marsha & Christian, Charles W. & Slemrod, Joel, 2001. "Do Normative Appeals Affect Tax Compliance? Evidence From a Controlled Experiment in Minnesota," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 54(1), pages 125-138, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:nwe:eajour:y:2017:i:3:p:333-351 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Book Chapters

    The following chapters of this book are listed in IDEAS

    Keywords

    Business and Management; Economics and Finance; Politics and Public Policy;

    JEL classification:

    • H0 - Public Economics - - General

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:elg:eebook:15370. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Darrel McCalla). General contact details of provider: http://www.e-elgar.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.