IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/pal/compes/v52y2010i4p637-670.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Unreported Employment and Envelope Wages in Mid-Transition: Comparing Developments and Causes in the Baltic Countries

Author

Listed:
  • Jaanika Meriküll

    () (Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu, Narva 4, Tartu 51009, Estonia.)

  • Karsten Staehr

    ([1] Tallinn School of Economics and Business Administration, Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia[2] Research Department, Bank of Estonia, Estonia)

Abstract

This paper compares the prevalence and determinants of unreported employment in the three Baltic countries in 1998 and 2002 using a hitherto little used data set. The prevalence of unreported employment varies substantially across the three countries and across the two sampling years. Microeconometric estimations show that firm-related characteristics, such as sectoral activity, firm size and employment changes, are important determinants of unreported employment in all three countries. The impact of socio-demographic factors, such as gender, age and education, is generally less important and varies across countries and time. Only a small part of the changes in unreported employment between 1998 and 2002 can be accounted for by changes in firm-specific factors and socio-demographic characteristics. Exploratory calculations suggest that the gain for individuals undertaking unreported employment is modest or non-existent, in particular among individuals who engage regularly in such activities. This suggests that the many of the recipients of envelope wages may have few alternatives to accepting unreported employment.

Suggested Citation

  • Jaanika Meriküll & Karsten Staehr, 2010. "Unreported Employment and Envelope Wages in Mid-Transition: Comparing Developments and Causes in the Baltic Countries," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 52(4), pages 637-670, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:pal:compes:v:52:y:2010:i:4:p:637-670
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/ces/journal/v52/n4/pdf/ces201017a.pdf
    File Function: Link to full text PDF
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/ces/journal/v52/n4/full/ces201017a.html
    File Function: Link to full text HTML
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:bla:brjirl:v:55:y:2017:i:1:p:83-111 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Williams Colin C. & Horodnic Ioana A., 2015. "Explaining The Prevalence Of The Informal Economy In The Baltics: An Institutional Asymmetry Perspective," European Spatial Research and Policy, Sciendo, vol. 22(2), pages 127-145, December.
    3. Ioana Alexandra Horodnic & Colin C. Williams, 2016. "An evaluation of the shadow economy in Baltic states: a tax morale perspective," International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 28(2/3), pages 339-358.
    4. Elek, Peter & Köll?, János & Reizer, Balázs & Szabó, Péter A., 2011. "Detecting Wage Under-reporting Using a Double Hurdle Model," IZA Discussion Papers 6224, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Colin C. Williams, 2014. "Confronting the Shadow Economy," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 15370.
    6. Elek, Peter & Köll?, János, 2017. "Eliciting Permanent and Transitory Undeclared Work from Matched Administrative and Survey Data," IZA Discussion Papers 10800, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Paulus, Alari, 2015. "Tax evasion and measurement error: An econometric analysis of survey data linked with tax records," ISER Working Paper Series 2015-10, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    8. repec:jes:journl:y:2017:v:8:p:5-28 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Colin C. Williams & Ioana A. Horodnic, 2015. "Explaining and tackling the shadow economy in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: a tax morale approach," Baltic Journal of Economics, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies, vol. 15(2), pages 81-98.
    10. Stoian, Andreea & Vintila, Nicoleta & Tatu, Lucian & Miricescu, Emilian, 2018. "On the fairness and the redistributive effects of PIT in Central and Eastern European countries," MPRA Paper 86568, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. repec:ris:utmsje:0218 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Merike Kukk & Karsten Staehr, 2014. "Income underreporting by households with business income: evidence from Estonia," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(2), pages 257-276, June.
    13. Jaanika Merikull & Tairi Room & Karsten Staehr, 2013. "Perceptions of unreported economic activities in Baltic Firms. Individualistic and non-individualistic motives," Bank of Estonia Working Papers wp2012-8, Bank of Estonia, revised 04 Feb 2013.
    14. Fedotenkov, Igor & Schneider, Friedrich, 2017. "Military expenditures and shadow economy in the Baltic States: Is there a link?," MPRA Paper 76194, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Dotti Nicola Francesco & Van Heur Bas & Williams Colin C., 2015. "Mapping the Shadow Economy: Spatial Variations in the use of High Denomination Bank Notes in Brussels," European Spatial Research and Policy, Sciendo, vol. 22(1), pages 5-21, June.
    16. Colin C. Williams & Friedrich Schneider, 2016. "Measuring the Global Shadow Economy," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 16551.
    17. Williams Colin C., 2014. "Explaining Cross-National Variations in the Prevalence and Character of Undeclared Employment in the European Union," European Spatial Research and Policy, Sciendo, vol. 21(2), pages 115-131, December.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pal:compes:v:52:y:2010:i:4:p:637-670. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.