IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/sef/csefwp/495.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Education is Forbidden: The Effect of the Boko Haram Conflict on Education in North-East Nigeria

Author

Listed:
  • Eleonora Bertoni

    ()

  • Michele Di Maio

    () (Università di Napoli Parthenope
    Inter American Development Bank.)

  • Vasco Molini

    () (World Bank)

  • Roberto Nisticò

    () (Università di Napoli Federico II and CSEF)

Abstract

TThis paper quantifies the microeconomic impact of the Boko Haram conflict on various educational outcomes of children living in North-East Nigeria during the period 2009- 2016. Using an individual panel fixed-effects regression and exploiting both over-time and within-district variation in household-level conflict exposure, we show that conflict reduces school enrollment and increases the probability of school dropout. In addition, using a standard difference-in-difference estimation strategy, we show that conflict reduces the years of education completed. As for the mechanisms explaining the decision to abandon school, we document that conflict increases the child's probability of working in the household's non-farm enterprise, a choice likely to be motivated by the conflict -induced worsening in the quality of the school supply. Finally, we find that conflict also worsen the general health conditions of the students.

Suggested Citation

  • Eleonora Bertoni & Michele Di Maio & Vasco Molini & Roberto Nisticò, 2018. "Education is Forbidden: The Effect of the Boko Haram Conflict on Education in North-East Nigeria," CSEF Working Papers 495, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
  • Handle: RePEc:sef:csefwp:495
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.csef.it/WP/wp495.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Philip Verwimp & Jan Van Bavel, 2014. "Schooling, Violent Conflict, and Gender in Burundi," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 28(2), pages 384-411.
    2. Akresh, Richard & de Walque, Damien, 2008. "Armed Conflict and Schooling: Evidence from the 1994 Rwandan Genocide," IZA Discussion Papers 3516, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    3. Shemyakina, Olga, 2011. "The effect of armed conflict on accumulation of schooling: Results from Tajikistan," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 186-200, July.
    4. Khan, Sarah & Seltzer, Andrew, 2016. "The Impact of Fundamentalist Terrorism on School Enrolment: Evidence from North-Western Pakistan, 2004-09," IZA Discussion Papers 10168, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    5. Fernanda Marquez-Padilla & Francisco Perez-Arce & Carlos Rodriguez-Castelan, 2015. "The (Non-) Effect of Violence on Education Evidence from the "War on Drugs" in Mexico," Working Papers WR-1082, RAND Corporation.
    6. Mariaflavia Harari & Eliana La Ferrara, 2012. "Conflict, Climate and Cells: A disaggregated analysis," Working Papers 461, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
    7. Roy, Sutanuka & Singh, Prakarsh, 2016. "Gender Bias in Education during Conflict: Evidence from Assam," IZA Discussion Papers 10092, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    8. Abidoye,Babatunde Oluwakayode & Cali,Massimiliano, 2015. "Income shocks and conflict : evidence from Nigeria," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7213, The World Bank.
    9. Mevlude Akbulut-Yuksel, 2014. "Children of War: The Long-Run Effects of Large-Scale Physical Destruction and Warfare on Children," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 49(3), pages 634-662.
    10. Mayra Buvinić & Monica Das Gupta & Olga N. Shemyakina, 2014. "Armed Conflict, Gender, and Schooling," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 28(2), pages 311-319.
    11. Andrew L. Dabalen & Saumik Paul, 2014. "Estimating the Effects of Conflict on Education in Côte d'Ivoire," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(12), pages 1631-1646, December.
    12. Tilman Brück & Michele Di Maio & Sami H Miaari, 2019. "Learning The Hard Way: The Effect of Violent Conflict on Student Academic Achievement," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 17(5), pages 1502-1537.
    13. Maren M. Michaelsen & Paola Salardi, 2018. "Violence, Psychological Stress and Educational Performance during the "War on Drugs" in Mexico," Working Papers tecipa-595, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
    14. Catherine rodr�guez & fabio sánchez, 2012. "Armed Conflict Exposure, Human Capital Investments, And Child Labor: Evidence From Colombia," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(2), pages 161-184, April.
    15. Prakarsh Singh & Sutanuka Roy, 2016. "Gender Bias in Education during Conflict: Evidence from Assam," Working Papers id:11267, eSocialSciences.
    16. Alexandre Marc & Neelam Verjee & Stephen Mogaka, 2015. "The Challenge of Stability and Security in West Africa
      [Relever les défis de la stabilité et de la sécurité en Afrique de l’Ouest]
      ," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 22033, 06-2020.
    17. Kelly Foley & Giovanni Gallipoli & David A. Green, 2014. "Ability, Parental Valuation of Education, and the High School Dropout Decision," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 49(4), pages 906-944.
    18. Miguel, Edward & Roland, Gérard, 2011. "The long-run impact of bombing Vietnam," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(1), pages 1-15, September.
    19. Singh, Prakarsh & Shemyakina, Olga N., 2016. "Gender-differential effects of terrorism on education: The case of the 1981–1993 Punjab insurgency," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 185-210.
    20. Gianmarco León, 2012. "Civil Conflict and Human Capital Accumulation: The Long-term Effects of Political Violence in Perú," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 47(4), pages 991-1022.
    21. Richard Akresh & Sonia Bhalotra & Marinella Leone & Una Okonkwo Osili, 2012. "War and Stature: Growing Up during the Nigerian Civil War," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(3), pages 273-277, May.
    22. Swee, Eik Leong, 2015. "On war intensity and schooling attainment: The case of Bosnia and Herzegovina," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 40(PA), pages 158-172.
    23. Pivovarova, Margarita & Swee, Eik Leong, 2015. "Quantifying the Microeconomic Effects of War Using Panel Data: Evidence From Nepal," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 308-321.
    24. Noury, Abdul G. & Speciale, Biagio, 2016. "Social constraints and women's education: Evidence from Afghanistan under radical religious rule," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(4), pages 821-841.
    25. Maren M. Michaelsen & Paola Salardi, 2018. "Violence, Psychological Stress and Educational Performance during the “War on Drugs†in Mexico," HiCN Working Papers 262, Households in Conflict Network.
    26. Christine Valente, 2014. "Education and Civil Conflict in Nepal," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 28(2), pages 354-383.
    27. Tom Bundervoet, 2012. "War, Health, and Educational Attainment: A Panel of Children during Burundi’s Civil War," HiCN Working Papers 114, Households in Conflict Network.
    28. Di Maio, Michele & Nandi, Tushar K., 2013. "The effect of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict on child labor and school attendance in the West Bank," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(1), pages 107-116.
    29. Minoiu, Camelia & Shemyakina, Olga N., 2014. "Armed conflict, household victimization, and child health in Côte d'Ivoire," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 237-255.
    30. Bellows, John & Miguel, Edward, 2009. "War and local collective action in Sierra Leone," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(11-12), pages 1144-1157, December.
    31. Clionadh Raleigh & Andrew Linke & HÃ¥vard Hegre & Joakim Karlsen, 2010. "Introducing ACLED: An Armed Conflict Location and Event Dataset," Journal of Peace Research, Peace Research Institute Oslo, vol. 47(5), pages 651-660, September.
    32. Prakarsh Singh & Sutanuka Roy, 2016. "Gender Bias in Education During Conflict Evidence from Assam," NCID Working Papers 09/2016, Navarra Center for International Development, University of Navarra.
    33. Kondylis, Florence, 2010. "Conflict displacement and labor market outcomes in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(2), pages 235-248, November.
    34. Patricia Justino & Marinella Leone & Paola Salardi, 2014. "Short- and Long-Term Impact of Violence on Education: The Case of Timor Leste," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 28(2), pages 320-353.
    35. Chamarbagwala, Rubiana & Morán, Hilcías E., 2011. "The human capital consequences of civil war: Evidence from Guatemala," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(1), pages 41-61, January.
    36. World Bank, 2016. "Poverty Reduction in Nigeria in the Last Decade," World Bank Other Operational Studies 25825, The World Bank.
    37. Márquez-Padilla,Fernanda & Pérez-Arce,Francisco & Rodriguez Castelan,Carlos, 2015. "The (non-) effect of violence on education : evidence from the"war on drugs"in Mexico," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7230, The World Bank.
    38. Sutanuka Roy & Prakarsh Singh, 2016. "Gender bias in education during conflict: Evidence from Assam," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2016-67, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Odozi, John Chiwuzulum & Oyelere, Ruth Uwaifo, 2019. "Conflict Exposure and Economic Welfare in Nigeria," GLO Discussion Paper Series 334, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    2. Stoop, Nik & Verpoorten, Marijke & van der Windt, Peter, 2019. "Artisanal or industrial conflict minerals? Evidence from Eastern Congo," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 122(C), pages 660-674.
    3. Marco Alfano & Joseph-Simon Gorlach, 2019. "Terrorism, education and the role of expectations: evidence from al-Shabaab attacks in Kenya," Working Papers 1904, University of Strathclyde Business School, Department of Economics.
    4. Chiwuzulum Odozi, John & Uwaifo Oyelere, Ruth, 2019. "Violent Conflict Exposure in Nigeria and Economic Welfare," IZA Discussion Papers 12570, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    5. Domenico Rossignoli & Sara Balestri & Simona Beretta & Mario A. Maggioni, 2019. "International Child Sponsorship and School Performance: Evidence from Goma (DRC)," DISEIS - Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia internazionale, delle istituzioni e dello sviluppo dis1905, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimento di Economia internazionale, delle istituzioni e dello sviluppo (DISEIS).
    6. Yamada, Hiroyuki & Matsushima, Midori, 2020. "Impacts of long-lasting civil conflicts on education: Evidence from the 2014 Census of Myanmar," MPRA Paper 99580, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Boko Haram; conflict ; education; Nigeria;

    JEL classification:

    • D22 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis
    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
    • N45 - Economic History - - Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation - - - Asia including Middle East
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sef:csefwp:495. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lia Ambrosio). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/cssalit.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.