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Gender-differential effects of terrorism on education: The case of the 1981–1993 Punjab insurgency

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  • Singh, Prakarsh
  • Shemyakina, Olga N.

Abstract

This study examines the long-run effect of the 1981–1993 Punjab insurgency on the educational attainment of adults who were ages 6–16 at the time, using the 2005 India Human Development Survey. We find a substantial and statistically significant negative effect of terrorism on female educational attainment through a triple differences specification. We find that our main effects are robust to two separate placebo tests, fertility checks, selection bias and migration checks, caste fixed effects and alternative ways of measuring conflict. Additionally, we carry out a unique parallel short-term analysis of the effect of conflict on education for boys and girls. This analysis makes use of micro-level expenditure data from a farmer-level data set and sheds light on household investments during the insurgency. Results from this analysis are consistent with the long-term effects found in the first part of the paper.

Suggested Citation

  • Singh, Prakarsh & Shemyakina, Olga N., 2016. "Gender-differential effects of terrorism on education: The case of the 1981–1993 Punjab insurgency," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 185-210.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecoedu:v:54:y:2016:i:c:p:185-210
    DOI: 10.1016/j.econedurev.2016.02.003
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    2. Krafft,Caroline Gould & Arango,Diana Jimena & Rubin,Amalia Hadas & Jocelyn,Kelly, 2022. "Conflict and Girl Child Marriage : Global Evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 10135, The World Bank.
    3. Hector Moreno, 2021. "The Influence of Parental and Grandparental Education in the Transmission of Human Capital," Working Papers 588, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    4. Shikha Silwal, 2017. "On peace and development economics," Economics of Peace and Security Journal, EPS Publishing, vol. 12(2), pages 5-9, October.
    5. Takahiro Tsujimoto & Yoko Kijima, 2020. "Effects of conflict on child health: Evidence from the 1990–1994 Northern Mali Conflict," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 29(11), pages 1456-1474, November.
    6. Marco Alfano & Joseph-Simon Gorlach, 2019. "Terrorism, education and the role of expectations: evidence from al-Shabaab attacks in Kenya," Working Papers 1904, University of Strathclyde Business School, Department of Economics.
    7. Nicole Stoelinga, 2024. "Education during conflict: The effect of territorial control by insurgents on schooling," Discussion Paper Series of the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods 2024_03, Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods.
    8. Caroline Krafft & Ragui Assaad & Isabel Pastoor, 2021. "How Do Gender Norms Shape Education and Domestic Work Outcomes? The Case of Syrian Refugee Adolescents in Jordan," HiCN Working Papers 361, Households in Conflict Network.
    9. Bertoni, Eleonora & Di Maio, Michele & Molini, Vasco & Nisticò, Roberto, 2019. "Education is forbidden: The effect of the Boko Haram conflict on education in North-East Nigeria," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 141(C).
    10. La Mattina, Giulia, 2018. "How persistent is the effect of conflict on primary education? Long-run evidence from the Rwandan genocide," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 163(C), pages 32-35.
    11. A. Hector Moreno M., 2018. "Good things come in threes: multigenerational transmission of human capital," Working Papers halshs-01945784, HAL.
    12. Silwal, Shikha, 2016. "Resilience amidst conflict? The effect of civil war exposure on secondary education," International Journal of Development and Conflict, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, vol. 6(2), pages 97-120.
    13. Guariso Andrea & Verpoorten Marijke, 2019. "Armed Conflict and Schooling in Rwanda: Digging Deeper," Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 25(1), pages 1-40, February.
    14. Bharati, Tushar, 2022. "The long shadow of the Kargil War: The effect of early-life stress on education," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 44(C).
    15. Tushar Bharati, 2021. "The Long Shadow of the Kargil War: The Effect of Early-life Stress on Education," HiCN Working Papers 347, Households in Conflict Network.
    16. Julie Christensen & Darius Onul & Prakarsh Singh, 2018. "Impact of Ethnic Civil Conflict on Migration of Skilled Labor," Eastern Economic Journal, Palgrave Macmillan;Eastern Economic Association, vol. 44(1), pages 18-29, January.
    17. Yamada, Hiroyuki & Matsushima, Midori, 2020. "Impacts of long-lasting civil conflicts on education: Evidence from the 2014 Census of Myanmar," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(C).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    India; Household expenditure; Human capital; Conflict; Education;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I2 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education
    • J1 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics
    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development

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