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Armed conflict and schooling in Rwanda: Digging deeper

  • Andrea Guariso

    ()

    (University of Leuven)

  • Marijke Verpoorten

    ()

    (University of Antwerp)

We study how armed conflicts affected educational outcomes in Rwanda during the nineties, relying on two waves of population census data and on a difference-in-differences identification strategy. Our results indicate that the conflicts caused on average a 22% drop in schooling attainments, corresponding to about one year less of education, and that the drop was relatively larger for girls. Primary and secondary schooling attainments were both affected, although through different channels. While increased drop-outs and school delays explain the drop in primary schooling, secondary schooling was mainly affected by a drop in enrollments. Finally, in a within-country analysis, we find no robust link between subnational variations in the drop in schooling and the intensity of any specific form of violence, despite the refined geographical measures at our disposal and a large set of checks. We present possible explanations for the observed patterns and provide related policy implications.

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Paper provided by Households in Conflict Network in its series HiCN Working Papers with number 166.

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Length: 57 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2015
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hic:wpaper:166
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.hicn.org

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  1. Shemyakina, Olga, 2011. "The effect of armed conflict on accumulation of schooling: Results from Tajikistan," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 186-200, July.
  2. de Walque, Damien & Verwimp, Philip, 2009. "The demographic and socio-economic distribution of excess mortality during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4850, The World Bank.
  3. World Bank, 2004. "Education in Rwanda : Rebalancing Resources to Accelerate Post-Conflict Development and Poverty Reduction," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 15034, August.
  4. Serneels , Pieter & Verpoorten , Marijke, 2012. "The impact of armed conflict on economic performance. Evidence from Rwanda," NEPS Working Papers 5/2012, Network of European Peace Scientists.
  5. Raphaёl Franck & Ilia Rainer, 2012. "Does the Leader’s Ethnicity Matter? Ethnic Favoritism, Education and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers 2012-06, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
  6. Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere & Kate Wharton, 2013. "The Impact of Conflict on Education Attainment and Enrollment in Colombia: lessons from recent IDPs," HiCN Working Papers 141, Households in Conflict Network.
  7. Christopher Blattman & Edward Miguel, 2010. "Civil War," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 48(1), pages 3-57, March.
  8. Jorge M. Agüero & Muhammad Farhan Majid, 2014. "War and the Destruction of Human Capital," HiCN Working Papers 163, Households in Conflict Network.
  9. Akresh, Richard & de Walque, Damien, 2008. "Armed Conflict and Schooling: Evidence from the 1994 Rwandan Genocide," IZA Discussion Papers 3516, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Prakarsh Singh & Olga N. Shemyakina, 2013. "Gender-Differential Effects of Conflict on Education: The Case of the 1981-1993 Punjab Insurgency," HiCN Working Papers 143, Households in Conflict Network.
  11. repec:cai:poeine:pope_504_0331 is not listed on IDEAS
  12. Guariso, Andrea & Verpoorten, Marijke, 2015. "Aid, Trad and Post-War Recovery of the Rwandan Coffee Sector," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 211693, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  13. Mevlude Akbulut-Yuksel, 2009. "Children of War: The Long-Run Effects of Large-Scale Physical Destruction and Warfare on Children," HiCN Working Papers 62, Households in Conflict Network.
  14. Chamarbagwala, Rubiana & Morán, Hilcías E., 2011. "The human capital consequences of civil war: Evidence from Guatemala," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(1), pages 41-61, January.
  15. Eik Leong Swee, 2009. "On War and Schooling Attainment: The Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina," HiCN Working Papers 57, Households in Conflict Network.
  16. Verwimp, Philip, 2005. "An economic profile of peasant perpetrators of genocide: Micro-level evidence from Rwanda," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 297-323, August.
  17. Marijke Verpoorten, 2012. "Leave none to claim the land," Journal of Peace Research, Peace Research Institute Oslo, vol. 49(4), pages 547-563, July.
  18. Marijke verpoorten, 2010. "Detecting Hidden Violence: The Spatial Distribution of Excess Mortality in Rwanda," LICOS Discussion Papers 25410, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  19. Humberto Lopez & Quentin Wodon, 2005. "The Economic Impact of Armed Conflict in Rwanda," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 14(4), pages 586-602, December.
  20. Patricia Justino & Marinella Leone & Paola Salardi, 2014. "Short- and Long-Term Impact of Violence on Education: The Case of Timor Leste," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 28(2), pages 320-353.
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