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First- and Second-Generation Impacts of the Biafran War

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  • Richard Akresh
  • Sonia Bhalotra
  • Marinella Leone
  • Una Osili

Abstract

We analyze long-term impacts of the 1967–1970 Nigerian Civil War, providing the first evidence of intergenerational impacts. War exposure among women results in reduced adult stature, an increased likelihood of being overweight, earlier age at first birth, and lower educational attainment. War exposure of mothers has adverse impacts on next-generation child survival, growth, and education. Impacts vary with age of exposure. For the mother and child health outcomes, the largest impacts stem from adolescent exposure. Exposure to a primary education program mitigates impacts of war exposure. War exposure leads to men marrying later and having fewer children.

Suggested Citation

  • Richard Akresh & Sonia Bhalotra & Marinella Leone & Una Osili, 2023. "First- and Second-Generation Impacts of the Biafran War," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 58(2), pages 488-531.
  • Handle: RePEc:uwp:jhriss:v:58:y:2023:i:2:p:488-531
    Note: DOI: https://doi.org/10.3368/jhr.58.4.0118-9272R1
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    12. Belay, Fikre & Berhane, Desalegn & Teshale, Haftom & Mulubrhan, Gebretsadkan & Hagos, Tsigab & Gebremariam, Hagos & Brhane, Tadesse & Islam, Zubairul, 2023. "The effect of war on educational institutions of Eastern Tigray zone, Tigray state, Ethiopia," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 102(C).
    13. Saurabh Singhal, 2018. "Early life shocks and mental health: The long-term effect of war in Vietnam," WIDER Working Paper Series 65, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    14. Martin Philipp Heger & Eric Neumayer, 2022. "Economic legacy effects of armed conflict: Insights from the civil war in Aceh, Indonesia," Conflict Management and Peace Science, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 39(4), pages 394-421, July.
    15. Grossman, Daniel & Khalil, Umair & Ray, Arijit, 2019. "Terrorism and early childhood health outcomes: Evidence from Pakistan," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 237(C), pages 1-1.
    16. Bharati, Tushar, 2022. "The long shadow of the Kargil War: The effect of early-life stress on education," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 44(C).
    17. Tushar Bharati, 2021. "The Long Shadow of the Kargil War: The Effect of Early-life Stress on Education," HiCN Working Papers 347, Households in Conflict Network.
    18. Nsababera, Olive, 2020. "Refugee camps – A lasting legacy? Evidence on long-term health impact," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 39(C).
    19. Tushar Bharati, 2020. "The Long Shadow of the Kargil War," Economics Discussion / Working Papers 20-02, The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
    20. Appau, Samuelson & Awaworyi Churchill, Sefa & Smyth, Russell & Trinh, Trong-Anh, 2021. "The long-term impact of the Vietnam War on agricultural productivity," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 146(C).
    21. Rakesh Banerjee & Tushar Bharati, 2020. "Mass shootings and Infant Health in the United States," Economics Discussion / Working Papers 20-16, The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
    22. Havari, Enkelejda & Peracchi, Franco, 2019. "The intergenerational transmission of education. Evidence from the World War II cohorts in Europe," Working Papers 2019-04, Joint Research Centre, European Commission.
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    JEL classification:

    • I12 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health Behavior
    • I25 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Economic Development
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

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