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Environmental Kuznets Curve and the role of energy consumption in Pakistan

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  • Muhammad, Shahbaz
  • Lean, Hooi Hooi
  • Muhammad, Shahbaz Shabbir

Abstract

The paper is an effort to fill the gap in the energy literature with a comprehensive country study for Pakistan. We investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic growth and trade openness for Pakistan over the period of 1971-2009. Bounds test for cointegration and Granger causality test are employed for the empirical analysis. The result suggests that there exists long-run relationship among the variables and the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis is supported. The significant existence of EKC shows the country's effort to condense CO2 emissions and indicates a reasonable achievement of controlling environmental degradation in Pakistan. Furthermore, we find one-way causal relationship running from income to CO2 emissions. Energy consumption increases CO2 emissions both in the short and long runs. Trade openness reduces CO2 emissions in the long run but it is insignificant in the short run. In addition, the change in CO2 emissions from short run to the long span of time is corrected by about 10 percent each year.

Suggested Citation

  • Muhammad, Shahbaz & Lean, Hooi Hooi & Muhammad, Shahbaz Shabbir, 2011. "Environmental Kuznets Curve and the role of energy consumption in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 34929, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 22 Nov 2011.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:34929
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    Cited by:

    1. Muhammad Shahbaz Shabbir & Muhammad Shahbaz & Muhammad Zeshan, 2014. "Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy Consumption, Real GDP and CO2 Emissions Nexus: A Structural VAR Approach in Pakistan," Bulletin of Energy Economics (BEE), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 2(3), pages 91-105, September.
    2. Muhammad Shahbaz & Muhammad Zeshan & Aviral Kumar Tiwari, 2015. "Analysis of renewable and nonrenewable energy consumption, real GDP and CO2 emissions: A structural VAR approach in Romania," Bulletin of Energy Economics (BEE), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 3(3), pages 105-118, September.
    3. repec:gam:jsusta:v:9:y:2017:i:5:p:825-:d:98720 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2010. "Does financial instability increase environmental pollution in Pakistan?," MPRA Paper 31360, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 28 Mar 2011.
    5. Ruslan Zaynutdinov, 2015. "Russia and Europe Under Sanctions: Problems of Energy Development," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 5(2), pages 415-421.
    6. Suleiman, Sa’ad & Muhammad, Shahbaz, 2012. "Price and Income Elasticities of Demand for Oil Products in African Member Countries of OPEC: A Cointegration Analysis," MPRA Paper 37390, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 28 Feb 2012.
    7. Muhammad, Shahbaz & V G R, Chandran & Pervaiz, Azeem, 2011. "Natural gas consumption and economic growth: cointegration, causality and forecast error variance decomposition tests for Pakistan," MPRA Paper 35103, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 30 Nov 2011.
    8. Muhammad Zeshan & Vaqar Ahmed, 2013. "Energy, environment and growth nexus in South Asia," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 15(6), pages 1465-1475, December.
    9. Muhammad, Shahbaz & Tiwari, Aviral & Muhammad, Nasir, 2011. "The effects of financial development, economic growth, coal consumption and trade openness on environment performance in South Africa," MPRA Paper 32723, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 10 Aug 2011.
    10. Sinha, Avik & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Balsalobre, Daniel, 2017. "Exploring the Relationship between Energy Usage Segregation and Environmental Degradation in N-11 Countries," MPRA Paper 81212, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 07 Sep 2017.
    11. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Mutascu, Mihai & Azim, Parvez, 2013. "Environmental Kuznets curve in Romania and the role of energy consumption," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 18(C), pages 165-173.
    12. Fazle Rabbi & Delwar Akbar & SM Zobaidul Kabir, 2015. "Environment Kuznets Curve for Carbon Emissions: A Cointegration Analysis for Bangladesh," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 5(1), pages 45-53.
    13. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-486 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    CO2 emissions; energy consumption; trade openness;

    JEL classification:

    • P28 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - Natural Resources; Environment

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