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CO2 emissions, energy usage, and output in Central America

  • Apergis, Nicholas
  • Payne, James E.

This study extends the recent work of Ang (2007) [Ang, J.B., 2007. CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France. Energy Policy 35, 4772-4778] in examining the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and output within a panel vector error correction model for six Central American countries over the period 1971-2004. In long-run equilibrium energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on emissions while real output exhibits the inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. The short-run dynamics indicate unidirectional causality from energy consumption and real output, respectively, to emissions along with bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real output. In the long-run there appears to be bidirectional causality between energy consumption and emissions.

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Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Policy.

Volume (Year): 37 (2009)
Issue (Month): 8 (August)
Pages: 3282-3286

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Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:37:y:2009:i:8:p:3282-3286
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol

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  17. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
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