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FDI and pollution: a granger causality test using panel data


  • Robert Hoffmann

    (School of Business, Open University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

  • Chew-Ging Lee

    (Nottingham University Business School, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK)

  • Bala Ramasamy

    (Nottingham University Business School, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK)

  • Matthew Yeung

    (School of Business, Open University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)


This study reports the findings of Granger causality tests on the relationship between FDI and pollution across 112 countries over 15-28 years. Our results uncover alternative causality relationships between the two variables depending on a host country's level of development. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Suggested Citation

  • Robert Hoffmann & Chew-Ging Lee & Bala Ramasamy & Matthew Yeung, 2005. "FDI and pollution: a granger causality test using panel data," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(3), pages 311-317.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:jintdv:v:17:y:2005:i:3:p:311-317 DOI: 10.1002/jid.1196

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Javorcik Beata Smarzynska & Wei Shang-Jin, 2003. "Pollution Havens and Foreign Direct Investment: Dirty Secret or Popular Myth?," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 3(2), pages 1-34, December.
    2. Beladi, Hamid & Chao, Chi-Chur & Frasca, Ralph, 1999. "Foreign investment and environmental regulations in LDCs," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 191-199, May.
    3. Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Selden, Thomas M., 1995. "Stoking the fires? CO2 emissions and economic growth," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 85-101, May.
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    5. William R. Cline, 1992. "Economics of Global Warming, The," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 39.
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    7. Talukdar, Debabrata & Meisner, Craig M., 2001. "Does the Private Sector Help or Hurt the Environment? Evidence from Carbon Dioxide Pollution in Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 827-840, May.
    8. Eskeland, Gunnar S. & Harrison, Ann E., 2003. "Moving to greener pastures? Multinationals and the pollution haven hypothesis," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 1-23, February.
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    11. Cole, Matthew A. & Elliott, Robert J. R., 2003. "Determining the trade-environment composition effect: the role of capital, labor and environmental regulations," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 363-383, November.
    12. Choi, In, 2001. "Unit root tests for panel data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 249-272, April.
    13. repec:dau:papers:123456789/6159 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Coondoo, Dipankor & Dinda, Soumyananda, 2002. "Causality between income and emission: a country group-specific econometric analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 351-367, March.
    15. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-438, July.
    16. van Beers, Cees & van den Bergh, Jeroen C J M, 1997. "An Empirical Multi-country Analysis of the Impact of Environmental Regulations on Foreign Trade Flows," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(1), pages 29-46.
    17. Letchumanan, Raman & Kodama, Fumio, 2000. "Reconciling the conflict between the 'pollution-haven' hypothesis and an emerging trajectory of international technology transfer," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 59-79, January.
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    JEL classification:

    • F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation


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