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Trade And The Environmental Kuznets Curve: Is Southern Africa A Pollution Haven?




Evidence that the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) may be explained by trade patterns casts doubt on the oft-stated conclusion that economic growth automatically leads to environmental improvement. Trends in net exports as a proportion of consumption for both USA and UK trade with SACU were examined for various dirty industries. Some evidence of pollution haven effects is found, although a similar trend for clean industries suggests that this effect is weak. However, even a general shift in manufacturing industries from North to South (as opposed to a shift in specifically dirty industries) may explain the EKC to some extent. Copyright 2005 Economic Society of South Africa.

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  • Anton Nahman & Geoff Antrobus, 2005. "Trade And The Environmental Kuznets Curve: Is Southern Africa A Pollution Haven?," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 73(4), pages 803-814, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:sajeco:v:73:y:2005:i:4:p:803-814

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Stern, David I., 2004. "The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1419-1439, August.
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    1. Halicioglu, Ferda, 2009. "An econometric study of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, income and foreign trade in Turkey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 1156-1164, March.
    2. Lotfalipour, Mohammad Reza & Falahi, Mohammad Ali & Ashena, Malihe, 2010. "Economic growth, CO2 emissions, and fossil fuels consumption in Iran," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 5115-5120.
    3. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Khraief, Naceur & Uddin, Gazi Salah & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2014. "Environmental Kuznets curve in an open economy: A bounds testing and causality analysis for Tunisia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 325-336.
    4. Irwan Shah Zainal Abidin & Muhammad Haseeb & Muhammad Azam & Rabiul Islam, 2015. "Foreign Direct Investment, Financial Development, International Trade and Energy Consumption: Panel Data Evidence from Selected ASEAN Countries," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 5(3), pages 841-850.
    5. Halicioglu, Ferda & Ketenci, Natalya, 2015. "The impact of international trade on environmental quality in transition countries: evidence from time series data during 1991-2013," MPRA Paper 71097, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2015.
    6. Sinha, Avik & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Balsalobre, Daniel, 2017. "Exploring the Relationship between Energy Usage Segregation and Environmental Degradation in N-11 Countries," MPRA Paper 81212, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 07 Sep 2017.
    7. Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2013. "Does financial instability increase environmental degradation? Fresh evidence from Pakistan," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 537-544.
    8. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Lean, Hooi Hooi & Shabbir, Muhammad Shahbaz, 2012. "Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis in Pakistan: Cointegration and Granger causality," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 2947-2953.
    9. Tiwari, Aviral Kumar & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Adnan Hye, Qazi Muhammad, 2013. "The environmental Kuznets curve and the role of coal consumption in India: Cointegration and causality analysis in an open economy," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 18(C), pages 519-527.
    10. Kaika, Dimitra & Zervas, Efthimios, 2013. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) theory—Part A: Concept, causes and the CO2 emissions case," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1392-1402.
    11. David C Broadstock & Alan Collins & Lester C Hunt & Konstantinos Vergos, 2014. "Voluntary Disclosure, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Business Performance: Assessing the First Decade of Reporting," Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), School of Economics Discussion Papers (SEEDS) 149, Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), School of Economics, University of Surrey.
    12. Faridul, Islam & Muhammad, Shahbaz, 2012. "Is There an Environmental Kuznets Curve for Bangladesh?," MPRA Paper 38490, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 30 Apr 2012.
    13. Tang, Chor Foon & Tan, Bee Wah, 2015. "The impact of energy consumption, income and foreign direct investment on carbon dioxide emissions in Vietnam," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 447-454.
    14. Halicioglu, Ferda & Ketenci, Natalya, 2016. "The impact of international trade on environmental quality: The case of transition countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 1130-1138.
    15. Kohler, Marcel, 2013. "CO2 emissions, energy consumption, income and foreign trade: A South African perspective," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1042-1050.
    16. Kebede, Shemelis, 2017. "Modeling Energy Consumption, CO2 Emissions and Economic Growth Nexus in Ethiopia: Evidence from ARDL Approach to Cointegration and Causality Analysis," MPRA Paper 83000, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Salah Uddin, Gazi & Ur Rehman, Ijaz & Imran, Kashif, 2014. "Industrialization, electricity consumption and CO2 emissions in Bangladesh," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 575-586.
    18. Salahuddin, Mohammad & Gow, Jeff, 2014. "Economic growth, energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Gulf Cooperation Council countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 44-58.

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