IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Moral Hazard and the Composition of Transfers: Theory with an Application to Foreign Aid

  • Amegashie, J. Atsu
  • Ouattara, Bazoumanna
  • Strobl, Eric

The paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of a donor’s choice of the composition of unrestricted and in-kind/restricted transfers to a recipient and how this composition is adjusted in response to changes in the moral hazard behavior of the recipient. In-kind or restricted transfers may be used, among others, to control a recipient’s moral hazard behavior but may be associated with deadweight losses. Within the context of foreign aid, we use a canonical political agency model to construct a simple signaling game between a possibly corrupt politician in a recipient country and a donor to illustrate the donor’s optimal choice of tied (restricted) and untied foreign aid. We clarify the condition under which a reduction in the recipient’s moral hazard behavior (i.e., improvement in the level of governance) leads to a fall in the proportion of tied aid. We test the predictions of our theoretical analysis using data on the composition of foreign aid by multilateral and bilateral donors.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
File Function: original version
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 3158.

in new window

Date of creation: 12 Apr 2007
Date of revision: 06 May 2007
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:3158
Contact details of provider: Postal: Schackstr. 4, D-80539 Munich, Germany
Phone: +49-(0)89-2180-2219
Fax: +49-(0)89-2180-3900
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Ganslandt, Mattias & Maskus, Keith E., 2007. "Wholesale Price Discrimination and Parallel Imports," Working Paper Series 702, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  2. Luis A. Gil-Alana & Antonio Moreno, 2009. "Fractional Integration and Structural Breaks in U.S. Macro Dynamics," Faculty Working Papers 02/09, School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Navarra.
  3. Thiess Buettner & Georg Wamser, 2007. "Intercompany Loans and Profit Shifting – Evidence from Company-Level Data," CESifo Working Paper Series 1959, CESifo Group Munich.
  4. Steinar Holden & Fredrik Wulfsberg, 2007. "Are Real Wages Rigid Downwards?," CESifo Working Paper Series 1983, CESifo Group Munich.
  5. Paul De Grauwe & Pablo Rovira Kaltwasser, 2007. "Modeling Optimism and Pessimism in the Foreign Exchange Market," CESifo Working Paper Series 1962, CESifo Group Munich.
  6. Karl Pedersen, 2001. "The Samaritan's Dilemma and the Effectiveness of Development Aid," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 8(5), pages 693-703, November.
  7. Borck, Rainald & Wrede, Matthias, 2008. "Commuting subsidies with two transport modes," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 841-848, May.
  8. Moffitt, Robert, 1990. "Has State Redistribution Policy Grown More Conservative?," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 43(2), pages 123-42, June.
  9. John Ferejohn, 1986. "Incumbent performance and electoral control," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 50(1), pages 5-25, January.
  10. Maizels, Alfred & Nissanke, Machiko K., 1984. "Motivations for aid to developing countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 12(9), pages 879-900, September.
  11. Balazs Egert & Carol Leonard, 2008. "Dutch Disease Scare in Kazakhstan: Is it real?," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 19(2), pages 147-165, April.
  12. Woessmann, Ludger, 2007. "Fundamental Determinants of School Efficiency and Equity: German States as a Microcosm for OECD Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 2880, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  13. Stephen Coate, 1987. "Cash Versus Direct Food Relief," Discussion Papers 724R, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
  14. Michael Funke & Michael Paetz, 2011. "Environmental policy under model uncertainty: a robust optimal control approach," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 107(3), pages 225-239, August.
  15. Guglielmo Maria Caporale & Juncal Cunado & Luis A. Gil-Alana, 2007. "Deterministic versus Stochastic Seasonal Fractional Integration and Structural Breaks," CESifo Working Paper Series 1989, CESifo Group Munich.
  16. Volker Grossmann & Thomas Steger, 2007. "Anti-Competitive Conduct, In-House R&D, and Growth," CESifo Working Paper Series 1963, CESifo Group Munich.
  17. Robin Boadway, 1997. "Public Economics and the Theory of Public Policy," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 30(4), pages 753-72, November.
  18. Dollar, David & Alesina, Alberto, 2000. "Who Gives Foreign Aid to Whom and Why?," Scholarly Articles 4553020, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  19. Anke Hoeffler & Scott Gates, 2004. "Global Aid Allocation: Are Nordic Donors Different?," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2004-34, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  20. Astrid Hopfensitz & Frans van Winden, 2007. "Dynamic Choice, Independence and Emotions," CESifo Working Paper Series 1949, CESifo Group Munich.
  21. Mauro Ghinamo & Paolo M. Panteghini & Federico Revelli, 2008. "FDI Determination and Corporate Tax Competition in a Volatile World," Working Papers 0802, University of Brescia, Department of Economics.
  22. Moffitt, Robert, 1992. "Incentive Effects of the U.S. Welfare System: A Review," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(1), pages 1-61, March.
  23. Kanbur, Ravi, 2003. "The Economics of International Aid," Working Papers 127784, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
  24. Muendler, Marc-Andreas, 2007. "Labor Reallocation in Response to Trade Reform," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt3cm38535, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
  25. Lahiri, Sajal & Raimondos, Pascalis, 1995. "Welfare effects of aid under quantitative trade restrictions," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3-4), pages 297-315, November.
  26. Poutvaara, Panu & Priks, Mikael, 2007. "Unemployment and Gang Crime: Could Prosperity Backfire?," IZA Discussion Papers 2710, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  27. Redoano, Michela, 2003. "Fiscal Interactions Among European Countries," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 680, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  28. Neil Bruce & Michael Waldman, 1988. "Transfers in Kind: Why They Can Be Efficient and Non-Paternalistic," UCLA Economics Working Papers 532, UCLA Department of Economics.
  29. Fraker, Thomas & Moffitt, Robert, 1988. "The effect of food stamps on labor supply : A bivariate selection model," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 25-56, February.
  30. Poutvaara, Panu & Siemers, Lars-H. R., 2008. "Smoking and social interaction," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 1503-1515, December.
  31. Egger, Peter & Koethenbuerger, Marko & Smart, Michael, 2010. "Do fiscal transfers alleviate business tax competition? Evidence from Germany," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(3-4), pages 235-246, April.
  32. Blackorby, Charles & Donaldson, David, 1988. "Cash versus Kind, Self-selection, and Efficient Transfers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(4), pages 691-700, September.
  33. Inés Macho-Stadler & David Pérez-Castrillo, 2006. "Optimal monitoring to implement clean technologies when pollution is random," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 672.06, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
  34. Qing Hong & Michael Smart, 2007. "In Praise of Tax Havens: International Tax Planning and Foreign Direct Investment," CESifo Working Paper Series 1942, CESifo Group Munich.
  35. Robin Boadway, 1998. "The Mirrlees Approach to the Theory of Economic Policy," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 67-81, February.
  36. Janeba, Eckhard, 2007. "Exports, unemployment and the welfare state," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 60, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
  37. Mavrotas, George & Villanger, Espen, 2006. "Multilateral Aid Agencies and Strategic Donor Behaviour," Working Paper Series DP2006/02, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  38. Steven Radelet, 2004. "Aid Effectiveness and the Millennium Development Goals," Working Papers 39, Center for Global Development.
  39. Thorvaldur Gylfason, 2007. "The International Economics of Natural Resources and Growth," CESifo Working Paper Series 1994, CESifo Group Munich.
  40. Eichner, Thomas & Pethig, Rüdiger, 2009. "Pricing the ecosystem and taxing ecosystem services: A general equilibrium approach," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 144(4), pages 1589-1616, July.
  41. Axel Dreher & Martin Gassebner & Lars-H. R. Siemers, 2007. "Does Terror Threaten Human Rights? Evidence from Panel Data," CESifo Working Paper Series 1935, CESifo Group Munich.
  42. James Marton & David E. Wildasin, 2006. "State Government Cash and In-kind Benefits: Intergovernmental Fiscal Transfers and Cross-Program Substitution," Working Papers 2006-01, University of Kentucky, Institute for Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations.
  43. Frederick van der Ploeg, 2007. "Prudent Budgetary Policy: Political Economy of Precautionary Taxation," Economics Working Papers ECO2007/39, European University Institute.
  44. Steven Brakman & Charles van Marrewijk, 2007. "It’s a Big World After All," CESifo Working Paper Series 1964, CESifo Group Munich.
  45. Giovanni Immordino & Marco Pagano, 2005. "Optimal Regulation of Auditing," CSEF Working Papers 133, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy, revised 01 May 2007.
  46. Timothy Besley & Anne Case, 1992. "Incumbent Behavior: Vote Seeking, Tax Setting and Yardstick Competition," NBER Working Papers 4041, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  47. Moffitt, Robert, 1983. "An Economic Model of Welfare Stigma," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(5), pages 1023-35, December.
  48. Moffitt, Robert, 1989. "Estimating the Value of an In-Kind Transfer: The Case of Food Stamps," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 385-409, March.
  49. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521055390 is not listed on IDEAS
  50. Besley, T. & Coate, S., 1989. "Public Provision Of Private Goods And The Redistribution Of Income," Papers 36, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Discussion Paper.
  51. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521808187 is not listed on IDEAS
  52. Catherine Roux & Thomas von Ungern-Sternberg, 2007. "Leniency Programs in a Multimarket Setting: Amnesty Plus and Penalty Plus," CESifo Working Paper Series 1995, CESifo Group Munich.
  53. Per Pettersson-Lidbom & Mikael Priks, 2007. "Behavior under Social Pressure: Empty Italian Stadiums and Referee Bias," CESifo Working Paper Series 1960, CESifo Group Munich.
  54. Fahad Khalil & Jacques Lawarrée & Sungho Yun, 2007. "Bribery vs. Extortion: Allowing the Lesser of two Evils," CESifo Working Paper Series 1993, CESifo Group Munich.
  55. Torsten Persson & Gerard Roland & Guido Tabellini, . "Separation of Powers and Political Accountability," Working Papers 100, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
  56. Doppelhofer, G. & Weeks, M., 2005. "Jointness of Growth Determinants," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0542, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  57. Burkhard Heer, 2007. "On the Modeling of the Income Distribution Business Cycle Dynamics," CESifo Working Paper Series 1945, CESifo Group Munich.
  58. Nichols, Albert L & Zeckhauser, Richard J, 1982. "Targeting Transfers through Restrictions on Recipients," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(2), pages 372-77, May.
  59. Kemp, Murray C & Kojima, Shoichi, 1985. "Tied Aid and the Paradoxes of Donor-Enrichment and Recipient-Impoverishment," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 26(3), pages 721-29, October.
  60. Ilyana Kuziemko & Eric Werker, 2006. "How Much Is a Seat on the Security Council Worth? Foreign Aid and Bribery at the United Nations," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 114(5), pages 905-930, October.
  61. Haufler, Andreas & Wooton, Ian, 2007. "Competition for Firms in an Oligopolistic Industry: Do Firms or Countries Have to Pay?," Discussion Papers in Economics 1399, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  62. William Easterly, 2007. "Are aid agencies improving?," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 22, pages 633-678, October.
  63. Gebhard Flaig & Timo Wollmershäuser, 2007. "Does the Euro-zone Diverge? A Stress Indicator for Analyzing Trends and Cycles in Real GDP and Inflation," CESifo Working Paper Series 1937, CESifo Group Munich.
  64. Knack,Stephen & Rahman, Aminur, 2004. "Donor fragmentation and bureaucratic quality in aid recipients," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3186, The World Bank.
  65. Yin-Wong Cheung & Dickson C. Tam & Matthew S. Yiu, 2008. "Does the Chinese interest rate follow the US interest rate?," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(1), pages 53-67.
  66. Jacobs, Bas, 2007. "Real options and human capital investment," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(6), pages 913-925, December.
  67. Michele Bernasconi & Paola Profeta, 2007. "Redistribution or Education? The Political Economy of the Social Race," CESifo Working Paper Series 1934, CESifo Group Munich.
  68. Luis Otávio Façanha & Marcelo Resende, 2006. "Hierarchical Structure in Brazilian Industrial Firms: an Econometric Study," Economics Working Papers ECO2006/1, European University Institute.
  69. Guglielmo Maria Caporale & Luis A. Gil-Alana, 2007. "A Multivariate Long-Memory Model with Structural Breaks," CESifo Working Paper Series 1950, CESifo Group Munich.
  70. Thomas Eichner & Rüdiger Pethig, 2007. "Efficient CO2 Emissions Control with National Emissions Taxes and International Emissions Trading," CESifo Working Paper Series 1967, CESifo Group Munich.
  71. Mirrlees, James A, 1971. "An Exploration in the Theory of Optimum Income Taxation," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(114), pages 175-208, April.
  72. Byeongchan Seong & Sung K. Ahn & Peter Zadrozny, 2007. "Cointegration Analysis with Mixed-Frequency Data," CESifo Working Paper Series 1939, CESifo Group Munich.
  73. Frederick L. Joutz & Stephan Danninger, 2007. "What Explains Germany’s Rebounding Export Market Share?," IMF Working Papers 07/24, International Monetary Fund.
  74. Besley, Timothy & Coate, Stephen, 1992. "Workfare versus Welfare Incentive Arguments for Work Requirements in Poverty-Alleviation Programs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(1), pages 249-61, March.
  75. William Easterly, 2002. "The Elusive Quest for Growth: Economists' Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262550423, June.
  76. repec:rwi:repape:0003 is not listed on IDEAS
  77. Schweinberger, A G, 1990. "On the Welfare Effects of Tied Aid," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 31(2), pages 457-62, May.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:3158. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.