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Aid Tying and Donor Fragmentation

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  • Knack, Stephen
  • Smets, Lodewijk

Abstract

This study analyzes theoretically and empirically the impact of aid fragmentation on donors’ decisions to tie their development aid to purchases from contractors based in their own countries. Building on collective action theory, it argues that a donor with a larger share of the aid market in a country has stronger incentives to maximize the development impact of its aid, by tying less of it. Empirical tests strongly and consistently support the prediction that higher donor aid shares will be associated with less aid tying. This finding is robust to recipient controls, donor fixed effects, and instrumental variables estimation. Furthermore, it contradicts other studies suggesting that when a small number of donors dominate the aid market in a country, they may exploit their monopoly power by tying more of their aid.

Suggested Citation

  • Knack, Stephen & Smets, Lodewijk, 2013. "Aid Tying and Donor Fragmentation," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 63-76.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:44:y:2013:i:c:p:63-76
    DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2012.09.006
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Anderson, Edward, 2012. "Aid fragmentation and donor transaction costs," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 117(3), pages 799-802.
    2. Martens,Bertin & Mummert,Uwe & Murrell,Peter & Seabright,Paul, 2008. "The Institutional Economics of Foreign Aid," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521055390, October.
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    7. Knack, Stephen & Rahman, Aminur, 2007. "Donor fragmentation and bureaucratic quality in aid recipients," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(1), pages 176-197, May.
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    9. Easterly, William & Williamson, Claudia R., 2011. "Rhetoric versus Reality: The Best and Worst of Aid Agency Practices," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(11), pages 1930-1949.
    10. William Easterly, 2002. "The cartel of good intentions: The problem of bureaucracy in foreign aid," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(4), pages 223-250.
    11. Kimura, Hidemi & Mori, Yuko & Sawada, Yasuyuki, 2012. "Aid Proliferation and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 1-10.
    12. Frot, Emmanuel & Santiso, Javier, 2009. "Crushed Aid: Fragmentation in Sectoral Aid," SITE Working Paper Series 6, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics.
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    14. Peter Kragelund, 2008. "The Return of Non-DAC Donors to Africa: New Prospects for African Development?," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 26(5), pages 555-584, September.
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    16. Oecd, 2010. "2009 OECD Report on Division of Labour," OECD Journal on Development, OECD Publishing, vol. 10(4), pages 7-58.
    17. Gibson, Clark C. & Andersson, Krister & Ostrom, The late Elinor & Shivakumar, Sujai, 2005. "The Samaritan's Dilemma: The Political Economy of Development Aid," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199278855.
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    Cited by:

    1. Stephan Klingebiel & Mario Negre & Pedro Morazán, 2017. "Costs, Benefits and the Political Economy of Aid Coordination: The Case of the European Union," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 29(1), pages 144-159, January.
    2. Auriol, Emmanuelle & Miquel-Florensa, Josepa, 2015. "Taxing Fragmented Aid to Improve Aid efficiency," TSE Working Papers 15-600, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
    3. Molenaers, Nadia & Dellepiane, Sebastian & Faust, Jorg, 2015. "Political Conditionality and Foreign Aid," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 2-12.
    4. repec:eee:socmed:v:206:y:2018:i:c:p:67-74 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Fløgstad, Cathrin & Hagen, Rune Jansen, 2017. "Aid Dispersion: Measurement in Principle and Practice," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 232-250.
    6. Knack, Stephen, 2012. "When do donors trust recipient country systems ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6019, The World Bank.
    7. Han, Lu & Koenig-Archibugi, Mathias, 2015. "Aid Fragmentation or Aid Pluralism? The Effect of Multiple Donors on Child Survival in Developing Countries, 1990–2010," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 344-358.
    8. repec:spr:revint:v:12:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s11558-017-9275-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. repec:oup:wbecrv:v:31:y:2017:i:3:p:708-729. is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Aurore Gary & Audrey-Rose Menard, 2015. "Aid, Trade and Migration : How are OECD countries policies connected in times of crisis?," Working Papers of BETA 2015-11, Bureau d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée, UDS, Strasbourg.
    11. Molenaers, N. & Gagiano, A. & Smets, L. & Dellepiane, S., 2015. "What Determines the Suspension of Budget Support?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 62-73.
    12. Kurt Annen & Luc Moers, 2017. "Donor Competition for Aid Impact, and Aid Fragmentation," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 31(3), pages 708-729.

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