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Behavior under social pressure: Empty Italian stadiums and referee bias

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  • Pettersson-Lidbom, Per
  • Priks, Mikael

Abstract

Due to tightened safety regulation, some Italian soccer teams had to temporarily play home matches in empty stadiums in 2007. We exploit this event and find that referees exhibited home bias caused by social pressure when spectators were present.

Suggested Citation

  • Pettersson-Lidbom, Per & Priks, Mikael, 2010. "Behavior under social pressure: Empty Italian stadiums and referee bias," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 108(2), pages 212-214, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecolet:v:108:y:2010:i:2:p:212-214
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