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Co-Fluctuations

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  • Jean IMBS

Abstract

This paper studies the determinants of the international synchronization of business cycles. Surprisingly, countries that trade more do not appear to have more synchronized cycles once other factors are accounted for. On the other hand, the extent of co-fluctuations increases quite robustly with the income level, so that two rich countries are unconditionally more synchronized. We develop a model where this happens because the world moves from an unstable steady state with full international specialization to a stable symmetric one. Similar countries produce similar goods and as a result experience sectoral shocks that are of equal importance. By contrast, different income levels reflect differences in production patterns, where the North produces manufactures and the South agricultural goods. Since there is no particular reason why stochastic developments in those two sectors should be correlated with one another, we should expect less cyclical comovement between a rich and a poor country. Finally, the model is consistent with the tendency for trade amongst developed countries to be mostly intra-industry.

Suggested Citation

  • Jean IMBS, 1998. "Co-Fluctuations," Cahiers de Recherches Economiques du Département d'Econométrie et d'Economie politique (DEEP) 9819, Université de Lausanne, Faculté des HEC, DEEP.
  • Handle: RePEc:lau:crdeep:9819
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    Cited by:

    1. Brian M. Doyle & Jon Faust, 2005. "Breaks in the Variability and Comovement of G-7 Economic Growth," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(4), pages 721-740, November.
    2. Burstein, Ariel & Kurz, Christopher & Tesar, Linda, 2008. "Trade, production sharing, and the international transmission of business cycles," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(4), pages 775-795, May.
    3. Frankel, Jeffrey, 2004. "Real Convergence and Euro Adoption in Central and Eastern Europe: Trade and Business Cycle Correlations as Endogenous Criteria for Joining EMU," Working Paper Series rwp04-039, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
    4. Luca De Benedictis & Lucia Tajoli, 2003. "Economic integration, similarity and convergence in the EU and CEECs trade structures," KITeS Working Papers 148, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Jul 2003.
    5. Bernd Süssmuth, 2002. "National and Supranational Business Cycles (1960-2000): A multivariate description of central G7 and EURO15 NIPA aggregates," CESifo Working Paper Series 658, CESifo Group Munich.
    6. Salvador Barrios & Marius Br¸lhart & Robert J.R. Elliott & Marianne Sensier, 2003. "A Tale of Two Cycles: Co-Fluctuations Between UK Regions and the Euro Zone," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 71(3), pages 265-292, June.
    7. Faia, Ester, 2002. "Monetary policy in a world with different financial systems," Working Paper Series 0183, European Central Bank.
    8. Portes, Richard & Rey, Hélène, 2000. "The Determinants of Cross-Border Equity Flows: The Geography of Information," Center for International and Development Economics Research, Working Paper Series qt51w4v95p, Center for International and Development Economics Research, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
    9. Christian Volpe Martincus & Andrea Molinari, 2007. "Regional Business Cycles and National Economic Borders: What Are the Effects of Trade in Developing Countries?," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), pages 140-178.
    10. Portes, Richard & Rey, Helene, 2005. "The determinants of cross-border equity flows," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, pages 269-296.
    11. Alberto Alesina & Robert J. Barro & Silvana Tenreyro, 2003. "Optimal Currency Areas," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2002, Volume 17, pages 301-356 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Ansgar Belke & Jens Heine, 2006. "Specialisation patterns and the synchronicity of regional employment cycles in Europe," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, pages 91-104.
    13. Pedro José Pérez & José Ramón García & Luisa Escriche, 2005. "Importancia De Las Perturbaciones Externas En La Economía Española Tras La Integración: ¿Tamaño Del Shock O Grado De Respuesta?," Working Papers. Serie EC 2005-07, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    14. Luca Benedictis & Lucia Tajoli, 2007. "Economic integration and similarity in trade structures," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 34(2), pages 117-137, April.
    15. Clement van de Coevering, 2003. "Structural convergence and monetary integration in Europe," MEB Series (discontinued) 2003-20, Netherlands Central Bank, Monetary and Economic Policy Department.
    16. M. Ayhan Kose & Kei-Mu Yi, 2002. "The trade comovement problem in international macroeconomics," Staff Reports 155, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    17. Alejandro Justiniano, 2004. "Sources and Propagation Mechanims of Foreign Disturbances in Small Open Economies: A Dynamic Factor Analysis," Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings 148, Econometric Society.
    18. Frankel, Jeffrey, 2008. "Should Eastern European Countries Join the Euro? A Review and Update of Trade Estimates and Consideration of Endogenous OCA Criteria," Working Paper Series rwp08-059, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
    19. Imbs, Jean, 2000. "Sectors and the OECD Business Cycle," CEPR Discussion Papers 2473, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    20. Mody, Ashoka & Sarno, Lucio & Taylor, Mark P., 2007. "A cross-country financial accelerator: Evidence from North America and Europe," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 149-165, February.
    21. M. Ayhan Kose & Kei-Mu Yi, 2001. "International Trade and Business Cycles: Is Vertical Specialization the Missing Link?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(2), pages 371-375, May.
    22. Jean IMBS, 1998. "Fluctuations, Bilateral Trade and the Exchange Rate Regime," Cahiers de Recherches Economiques du Département d'Econométrie et d'Economie politique (DEEP) 9906, Université de Lausanne, Faculté des HEC, DEEP, revised Nov 1998.
    23. Demyanyk, Yuliya & Volosovych, Vadym, 2005. "Macroeconomic Asymmetry in the European Union: The Difference Between New and Old Members," CEPR Discussion Papers 4847, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    24. M. Ayhan Kose & Christopher Otrok & Charles H. Whiteman, 2003. "International Business Cycles: World, Region, and Country-Specific Factors," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(4), pages 1216-1239, September.
    25. Richard Portes & =20 H=E9l=E8ne Rey, 2001. "The Determinants of Cross-Border Equity Flows: The Geography of=20 Information," International Finance 0012002, EconWPA.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    international business cycles; synchronization; sectoral shocks;

    JEL classification:

    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • F30 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - General
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics

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