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The Endogeneity of the Optimum Currency Area Criteria

  • Jeffrey A. Frankel
  • Andrew K. Rose

A country's suitability for entry into a currency union depends on a number of economic conditions. These include, inter alia, the intensity of trade with other potential members of the currency union, and the extent to which domestic business cycles are correlated with those of the other countries. But international trade patterns and international business cycle correlations are endogenous. This paper develops and investigates the relationship between the two phenomena. Using thirty years of data for twenty industrialized countries, we uncover a strong and striking empirical finding: countries with closer trade links tend to have more tightly correlated business cycles. It follows that countries are more likely to satisfy the criteria for entry into a currency union after taking steps toward economic integration than before.

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 5700.

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Date of creation: Aug 1996
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Publication status: published as The Economic Journal, Vol. 108, no. 449 (July 1998): 1009-1025. Reprinted in Swedish Economy Policy Review 4 (1997): 487-512.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:5700
Note: ITI IFM
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  1. Bayoumi, Tamim & Eichengreen, Barry, 1992. "Is There a Conflict Between EC Enlargement and European Monetary Unification?," CEPR Discussion Papers 646, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Barry J. Eichengreen & Tamim Bayoumi, 1993. "Monetary and Exchange Rate Arrangements for Nafta," IMF Working Papers 93/20, International Monetary Fund.
  3. Artis, Michael J & Zhang, W, 1997. "International Business Cycles and the ERM: Is There a European Business Cycle?," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 2(1), pages 1-16, January.
  4. Cohen, Daniel & Wyplosz, Charles, 1989. "The European Monetary Union: An Agnostic Evaluation," CEPR Discussion Papers 306, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. Tamim Bayoumi and Barry Eichengreen., 1992. "Shocking Aspects of European Monetary Unification," Economics Working Papers 92-187, University of California at Berkeley.
  6. Eichengreen, Barry, 1987. "Real Exchange Rate Behavior Under Alternative International Monetary Regimes: Interwar Evidence," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt0nh766xh, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  7. Luca Antonio Ricci, 1997. "Exchange Rate Regimes and Location," IMF Working Papers 97/69, International Monetary Fund.
  8. Lucas, Robert Jr, 1976. "Econometric policy evaluation: A critique," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 19-46, January.
  9. Bayoumi, T. & Eichengreen, B., 1994. "One Money or Many? Analysing the Prospects for Monetary Unification in Various Parts of the World," Princeton Studies in International Economics 76, International Economics Section, Departement of Economics Princeton University,.
  10. Alan C. Stockman, 1987. "Sectoral and National Aggregate Disturbances to Industrial Output in Seven European Countries," NBER Working Papers 2313, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. De Grauwe, Paul & Vanhaverbeke, Wim, 1991. "Is Europe an Optimum Currency Area? Evidence from Regional Data," CEPR Discussion Papers 555, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  12. Eichengreen, B., 1992. "Should the Maastricht Treaty be Saved?," Princeton Studies in International Economics 74, International Economics Section, Departement of Economics Princeton University,.
  13. George S. Tavlas, 1993. "The ‘New’ Theory of Optimum Currency Areas," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(6), pages 663-685, November.
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