IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Is Europe an Optimum Currency Area? Evidence from Regional Data


  • De Grauwe, Paul
  • Vanhaverbeke, Wim


In this paper we contrast regional and national data on real exchange rate movements, the growth rates of output and employment, labour mobility and unemployment. We find that asymmetric shocks tend to be more prevalent at the regional than at the national level in Europe. The presumption of the optimum currency area literature holds relatively well, i.e. the adjustment mechanism at the national level involves very little mobility of labour and substantially more real exchange rate variability. At the regional level the opposite holds, although we find some role for real exchange rate adjustments. Finally, we identify two models of regional integration, a `Northern' and a `Southern' one. Implications for monetary union in Europe are drawn.

Suggested Citation

  • De Grauwe, Paul & Vanhaverbeke, Wim, 1991. "Is Europe an Optimum Currency Area? Evidence from Regional Data," CEPR Discussion Papers 555, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:555

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: CEPR Discussion Papers are free to download for our researchers, subscribers and members. If you fall into one of these categories but have trouble downloading our papers, please contact us at

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    More about this item


    Monetary Union; Optimum Currency Area;


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:555. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no bibliographic references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: the person in charge (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.