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Globalization and the Inequality of Nations

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  • Krugman, Paul
  • Venables, Anthony J

Abstract

The paper considers a model in which an imperfectly competitive manufacturing sector produces goods which are used both for final consumption and as intermediates. Intermediate usage creates cost and demand linkages between firms and a tendency for manufacturing agglomeration. How does globalization affect the location of manufacturing and the gains from trade? At high transport costs all countries have some manufacturing industry, but when transport costs fall below a critical value a core-periphery pattern forms spontaneously, and nations that find themselves in the periphery suffer a decline in real income. As transport costs continue to fall there comes a second stage of convergence in real incomes, in which the peripheral nations gain and the core nations may well lose.

Suggested Citation

  • Krugman, Paul & Venables, Anthony J, 1994. "Globalization and the Inequality of Nations," CEPR Discussion Papers 1015, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:1015
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Krugman, Paul, 1991. "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(3), pages 483-499, June.
    2. Krugman, Paul, 1980. "Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 950-959, December.
    3. Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1977. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(3), pages 297-308, June.
    4. Nickell, Stephen & Nicolitsas, D., 1994. "Wages," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 51644, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    5. Paul Krugman & Robert Lawrence, 1993. "Trade, Jobs, and Wages," NBER Working Papers 4478, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Ethier, Wilfred J, 1982. "National and International Returns to Scale in the Modern Theory of International Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(3), pages 389-405, June.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Agglomeration; Globalization; Integration;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F1 - International Economics - - Trade
    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • R3 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location

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    1. Nouvelle économie géographique in Wikipedia French

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