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Agglomeration and Trade with Input–Output Linkages and Capital Mobility

Listed author(s):
  • Frédéric Robert-Nicoud

Abstract This paper proposes a nesting ‘New Trade, New Economic Geography’ model in which agglomeration is driven by input–output linkages among firms, trade in goods and capital mobility. The New Economic Geography sub-model exhibits the same positive and dynamic properties as a wide class of models based on other agglomeration mechanisms. Its normative implications are nuanced: equity and efficiency do not necessarily conflict. When input–output linkages are strong, agglomeration might Pareto-dominate dispersion because agglomeration lowers producer prices. When vertical linkages are weak, the market is biased in favour of agglomeration if the planer has a strong aversion to inequalities. RÉSUMÉ Accumulation et commerce avec intégration amont-aval et mobilité du capital. Cet article décrit un modèle, qui a donné naissance au modèle commercial de Flam et Helpman (1987), et de Martin et Rogers (1995) et à un modèle original à la Krugman « Nouvelle Géographie Economique » (1991). L'accumulation se produit par l'intégration amont-aval des sociétés entre elles et par la mobilité du capital. L'auteur étudie les conséquences positives puis normatives du modèle. Dans le domaine des conséquences positives, le modèle NGE montre les mêmes propriétés dynamiques que les autres modèles fondés sur d'autres mécanismes d'accumulation (migration du travail, accumulation de capital humain). Donc, ce modèle est bien adapté pour étudier les questions de localisation des industries, du commerce des biens et de la mobilité du capital. En ce qui concerne les conséquences normatives, lorsque l'intégration amont- aval est forte, l'accumulation peut l'emporter sur la dispersion de Pareto, parce que l'accumulation conduit à une diminution des prix du producteur: l'efficacité et la valeur n'entrent pas forcément en conflit dans ce modèle. Quand l'intégration verticale est faible, le marché est orienté en faveur de l'accumulation si le décideur montre une grande aversion aux inégalités. RESUMEN Aglomeración y comercio con enlaces de entrada–salida y movilidad de capital En este artículo expongo un modelo que atrapa el modelo comercial de Flam y Helpman (1987), de Martin y Rogers (1995) y de un modelo original según la teoría la ‘Nueva Geografía Económica’ de Krugman (1991). La aglomeración está impulsada por enlaces de entrada–salida entre las sociedades y por la movilidad de capital. Aquí analizo las implicaciones positivas y normativas del modelo. En términos de implicaciones positivas, el modelo NEG expone las mismas propiedades dinámicas como una amplia clase de modelos basados en otros mecanismos de aglomeración (migración laboral, acumulación de capital humano). De este modo, el modelo encaja bien para estudiar cuestiones en cuanto a la ubicación de la industria, el comercio de mercancías y la movilidad de capital. Con respecto a las implicaciones normativas, cuando son sólidos los enlaces de entrada–salida, la aglomeración podría dominar la dispersión en el diagrama de Pareto debido a que la aglomeración hace disminuir los precios de los productores: en este modelo la eficiencia y la equidad no necesariamente están en conflicto. Cuando los enlaces verticales son débiles, el mercado es sesgado a favor de la aglomeración si el planificador tiene una fuerte aversión a las desigualdades.

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Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Spatial Economic Analysis.

Volume (Year): 1 (2006)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 101-126

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Handle: RePEc:taf:specan:v:1:y:2006:i:1:p:101-126
DOI: 10.1080/17421770600662459
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  1. Puga, Diego & Venables, Anthony J., 1996. "The Spread of Industry: Spatial Agglomeration in Economic Development," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 440-464, December.
  2. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Stephen J. Redding & Peter K. Schott, 2007. "Firms in International Trade," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(3), pages 105-130, Summer.
  3. Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric, 2004. "The Structure of Simple 'New Economic Geography' Models," CEPR Discussion Papers 4326, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Kiminori Matsuyama, 1995. "Complementarities and Cumulative Processes in Models of Monopolistic Competition," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 33(2), pages 701-729, June.
  5. Puga, Diego, 1999. "The rise and fall of regional inequalities," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 303-334, February.
  6. Fujita,Masahisa & Thisse,Jacques-François, 2013. "Economics of Agglomeration," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9781107001411, October.
  7. Gianmarco Ottaviano & Takatoshi Tabuchi & Jacques-FranÁois Thisse, 2002. "Agglomeration and Trade Revisited," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 43(2), pages 409-436, May.
  8. Charlot, Sylvie & Gaigne, Carl & Robert-Nicoud, Frederic & Thisse, Jacques-Francois, 2006. "Agglomeration and welfare: The core-periphery model in the light of Bentham, Kaldor, and Rawls," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(1-2), pages 325-347, January.
  9. Faini, Riccardo, 1984. "Increasing Returns, Non-Traded Inputs and Regional Development," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 94(374), pages 308-323, June.
  10. Puga, Diego & Venables, Anthony J., 1997. "Preferential trading arrangements and industrial location," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3-4), pages 347-368, November.
  11. I. M. D. Little, 1949. "The Foundations Of Welfare Economics," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 1(2), pages 227-246.
  12. Colin Lawrence & Pablo T. Spiller, 1983. "Product Diversity, Economies of Scale, and International Trade," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 98(1), pages 63-83.
  13. Behrens, Kristian & Lamorgese, Andrea & Ottaviano, Gianmarco & Tabuchi, Takatoshi, 2005. "Changes in Infrastructure and Tariff Barriers: Local Vs. Global Impacts," CEPR Discussion Papers 5103, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  14. Epifani, Paolo, 2005. "Heckscher-Ohlin and agglomeration," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 645-657, November.
  15. Baldwin, Richard E., 1999. "Agglomeration and endogenous capital," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 253-280, February.
  16. Rivera-Batiz, Francisco L., 1988. "Increasing returns, monopolistic competition, and agglomeration economies in consumption and production," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 125-153, February.
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  18. repec:hhs:iuiwop:430 is not listed on IDEAS
  19. Flam, Harry & Helpman, Elhanan, 1987. "Industrial policy under monopolistic competition," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1-2), pages 79-102, February.
  20. Gianmarco I.P. Ottaviano & Frédéric Robert-Nicoud, 2006. "The 'genome' of NEG models with vertical linkages: a positive and normative synthesis," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 6(2), pages 113-139, April.
  21. Richard E. Baldwin & Frederic Robert-Nicoud, 2000. "Free trade agreements without delocation," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 33(3), pages 766-786, August.
  22. Martin, Philippe & Rogers, Carol Ann, 1995. "Industrial location and public infrastructure," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3-4), pages 335-351, November.
  23. Baldwin, Richard E., 2001. "Core-periphery model with forward-looking expectations," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 21-49, February.
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