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Innovation, intégration et développement régional

  • Boiscuvier, Éléonore

    (C.E.F.I., U.M.R. - C.N.R.S.)

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    The European integration facilitates firms movements and emphasizes competition between territories. The question to address is: Does integration promotes convergence or divergence between European regions? In this paper, we present a model combining insights of the new growth theory and the new economic geography. This analytical framework allows us to model complex relationships between innovation, regional growth and integration. We demonstrate that economic space exhibits a natural tendency to polarization, and that integration often emphasizes divergence. We show that the impact of integration on regional growth is ambiguous. It depends on regional endogenous characteristics and on History. L’intégration européenne accroît la mobilité du capital, ce qui a pour effet d’accentuer la concurrence entre les territoires. Le problème est de déterminer si cette intégration favorise ou non la convergence entre les régions. Nous tentons de répondre à cette question grâce à une modélisation qui combine les apports théoriques de la croissance endogène et de la nouvelle géographie économique. Cette synthèse permet de rendre compte de la complexité des relations existant entre l’innovation, la structuration des espaces économiques et le développement régional. Nous démontrons que l’espace économique a naturellement tendance à se différencier, en fonction d’avantages comparatifs économiques et spatiaux, et que cette polarisation peut être accentuée par l’ouverture. Nous établissons aussi que l’impact de l’intégration sur le développement régional dépend de caractéristiques endogènes aux économies et de l’Histoire. Ainsi, les régions en retard n’ont pas toujours intérêt à s’intégrer à l’économie mondiale car cela peut les conduire et les maintenir dans une trappe de sous-développement.

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    Article provided by Société Canadienne de Science Economique in its journal L'Actualité économique.

    Volume (Year): 77 (2001)
    Issue (Month): 2 (juin)
    Pages: 255-280

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    Handle: RePEc:ris:actuec:v:77:y:2001:i:2:p:255-280
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