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Self-employment by gender in the EU: convergence and clusters

Author

Listed:
  • João Ricardo Faria

    (Department of Economics, Florida Atlantic University, USA)

  • Juan Carlos Cuestas

    (Department of Economics and Finance, Tallinn University of Technology and Research Unit, Eesti Pank, Estonia; IEI and Department of Economics, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain)

  • Luis Gil-Alana

    (Department of Economics, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain)

  • Estefania Mourelle

    (Department of Economics, University of A Coruna, Spain)

Abstract

This paper studies the convergence of self-employment by gender in the European Union, through tests for the order of integration and cluster analysis, in order to investigate the occurrence of two types of convergence: between genders and among European countries. The paper makes two contributions to the literature: 1) theoretically, it provides useful insights into the macroeconomic determinants of self-employment; 2) methodologically, it uses unit roots, fractional integration and cluster analysis to assess convergence. The empirical results point at mixed evidence of convergence, but with clear differences between the core and the periphery of Europe.

Suggested Citation

  • João Ricardo Faria & Juan Carlos Cuestas & Luis Gil-Alana & Estefania Mourelle, 2020. "Self-employment by gender in the EU: convergence and clusters," Working Papers 2020/22, Economics Department, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón (Spain).
  • Handle: RePEc:jau:wpaper:2020/22
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Self-employment; gender; European Union; convergence; cluster analysis;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • O57 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Comparative Studies of Countries

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