Risk Preference And Employment Contract Type
We consider three broad types of employment contract vis, self-employment, PRP, and fixed wage employment. We focus on the implied degree of income risk associated with each type of employment contract, arguing that such risk falls as we move from self-employment at one extreme to fixed wage employment at the other. We investigate the possibility that there is a systematic relationship between employment within a particular contract type and risk preference as proxied by expenditure on risky goods and goods associated with risk averse behaviour. A typical question might be: 'do self-employed individuals attempt to compensate for the relatively high level of income risk they face by reducing their expenditure on relatively risky goods? Or, do such individuals have a taste for risk which they express in both their working and non-working life?' Our empirical analysis, based on pooled cross-section data drawn from the British Family Expenditure Survey 1997-2000, provides evidence of a systematic relationship between employment contract type and risk preference, with, for example, self-employed workers being more (less) likely to engage in the consumption of "risky" (financial security) products. The results are based the Ordered Generalized Extreme Values model (OGEV), a relatively infrequently used discrete choice model, which importantly allows for ordering and correlation in the observed alternatives.
|Date of creation:||2002|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +61 3 8344 5355
Fax: +61 3 8344 6899
Web page: http://www.economics.unimelb.edu.au
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Douglas Holtz-Eakin & David Joulfaian & Harvey S. Rosen, 1993.
"Sticking it Out: Entrepreneurial Survival and Liquidity Constraints,"
NBER Working Papers
4494, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Joulfaian, David & Rosen, Harvey S, 1994. "Sticking It Out: Entrepreneurial Survival and Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(1), pages 53-75, February.
- Douglas Holtz-Eakin & David Joulfaian & Harvey Rosen, 1993. "Sticking It Out: Entrepreneurial Survival and Liquidity Constraints," Working Papers 698, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Evans, David S & Leighton, Linda S, 1989. "Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(3), pages 519-35, June.
- Robert B. Barsky & Miles S. Kimball & F. Thomas Juster & Matthew D. Shapiro, 1995. "Preference Parameters and Behavioral Heterogeneity: An Experimental Approach in the Health and Retirement Survey," NBER Working Papers 5213, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Fry, Tim R. L. & Harris, Mark N., 1996. "A Monte Carlo study of tests for the independence of irrelevant alternatives property," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 19-30, February.
- Borooah, Vani K & Hart, Mark, 1999. " Factors Affecting Self-Employment among Indian and Black Caribbean Men in Britain," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 111-29, September.
- Gaynor, M. & Gertler, P., 1996.
"Moral hazard and Risk Speading in Partnerships,"
96-09, RAND - Reprint Series.
- George J. Borjas, 1986.
"The Self-Employment Experience of Immigrants,"
NBER Working Papers
1942, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- van Praag, C M & Cramer, J S, 2001. "The Roots of Entrepreneurship and Labour Demand: Individual Ability and Low Risk Aversion," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 68(269), pages 45-62, February.
- Kihlstrom, Richard E & Laffont, Jean-Jacques, 1979. "A General Equilibrium Entrepreneurial Theory of Firm Formation Based on Risk Aversion," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(4), pages 719-48, August.
- George J. Borjas & Stephen G. Bronars, 1988.
"Consumer Discrimination and Self-Employment,"
NBER Working Papers
2627, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kanbur, S M, 1979. "Of Risk Taking and the Personal Distribution of Income," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(4), pages 769-97, August.
- Weitzman, Martin L, 1985.
"The Simple Macroeconomics of Profit Sharing,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 75(5), pages 937-53, December.
- Fry, T R L, et al, 1993. "Economic Motivations for Limited Dependent and Qualitative Variable Models," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 69(205), pages 193-205, June.
- Blanchflower, David G & Oswald, Andrew J, 1998.
"What Makes an Entrepreneur?,"
Journal of Labor Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 26-60, January.
- Taylor, Mark P, 1996. "Earnings, Independence or Unemployment: Why Become Self-Employed?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 58(2), pages 253-66, May.
- Evans, David S & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1989. "An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 808-27, August.
- Hersch, Joni & Pickton, Todd S, 1995. "Risk-Taking Activities and Heterogeneity of Job-Risk Tradeoffs," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 11(3), pages 205-17, December.
- Small, Kenneth A, 1987. "A Discrete Choice Model for Ordered Alternatives," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 409-24, March.
- Rees, Hedley & Shah, Anup, 1986. "An Empirical Analysis of Self-employment in the U.K," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 1(1), pages 95-108, January.
- Joni Hersch & W. Kip Viscusi, 1990. "Cigarette Smoking, Seatbelt Use, and Differences in Wage-Risk Tradeoffs," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(2), pages 202-227.
- Shaw, Kathryn L, 1996. "An Empirical Analysis of Risk Aversion and Income Growth," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 14(4), pages 626-53, October.
- Clark, Kenneth & Drinkwater, Stephen, 2000. "Pushed out or pulled in? Self-employment among ethnic minorities in England and Wales," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 603-628, September.
- Small, Kenneth A., 1994. "Approximate generalized extreme value models of discrete choice," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 351-382, June.
- Yannis Georgellis & Howard J. Wall, 2000. "Who are the self-employed?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Nov, pages 15-24.
- Robson, Arthur J., 1996. "The Evolution of Attitudes to Risk: Lottery Tickets and Relative Wealth," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 190-207, June.
- Shapiro, Carl & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1984. "Equilibrium Unemployment as a Worker Discipline Device," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(3), pages 433-44, June.
- Sarah Brown & Lisa Farrell & John G Sessions, 2001. "Employment Contract Matching: An Analysis of Dual Earner Couples and Working Households," Discussion Papers in Economics 01/9, Department of Economics, University of Leicester.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:mlb:wpaper:845. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Aminata Doumbia)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.