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L'importance de l'environnement familial comme déterminant du travail indépendant

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  • Nathalie Colombier
  • David Masclet

Abstract

[spa] La importancia del entorno familiar como determinante del trabajo independiente. La literatura económica ha discutido mucho los fundamentos microeconómicos de la decisión de elegir el estatuto de "independiente”. Varios estudios empíricos destacan el papel determinante de la situación fi nanciera, del nivel de educación y del entorno familiar. Así pues, Laferrère (1998) observa que la probabilidad de ser independiente se correlaciona positivamente al hecho de tener a uno o a sus dos padres trabajadores independientes. Varios trabajos explican esta correlación intergeneracional del trabajo independiente por la posibilidad que tienen los padres trabajadores independientes de transmitir un capital humano informal a sus hijos (Dunn y Holtz-Eakin, 2000). Este artículo se interesa más concretamente en caracterizar el papel desempeñado por el entorno familiar. Los padres no se limitan generalmente a transmitir a sus hijos competencias específi cas a un ofi cio determinado, sino también algunas aptitudes de gestión no específi cas a una profesión particular. Por lo tanto, los padres trabajadores independientes transmiten a sus hijos un "saber pensar” (aptitudes de dirección, capacidad para trabajar de forma autónoma) que facilita el ejercicio del estatuto de independiente, cualquiera que sea el ofi cio considerado. Los fundamentos microeconómicos de la decisión de elegir el estatuto de independiente difi eren según que los individuos se hayan o no benefi ciado de transmisiones intergeneracionales por parte de padres trabajadores independientes. Por ejemplo, el nivel de educación formal es más determinante para las primeras generaciones de trabajadores independientes (aquellos cuyos padres no son trabajadores independientes) que para las segundas generaciones de trabajadores independientes (aquellos cuyos padres son trabajadores independientes). [ger] In der wirtschaftlichen Fachliteratur wurde viel über die mikroökonomischen Grundlagen bei dem Entschluss diskutiert, sich "selbständig“ zu machen. Mehrere empirische Studien betonen die entscheidende Rolle der fi nanziellen Situation, des Bildungsniveaus und des familiären Umfelds. So stellt Laferrère (1998) fest, dass die Wahrscheinlichkeit einer selbständigen Erwerbstätigkeit in einem positiven Zusammenhang mit der Tatsache steht, dass ein oder beide Elternteile selbständig sind. Mehrere Arbeiten erklären diese Korrelation der selbständigen Arbeit zwischen den Generationen mit der Möglichkeit der selbständigen Eltern, ihren Kindern ein informelles Humankapital zu übermitteln (Dunn und Holtz-Eakin, 2000). In diesem Artikel wird insbesondere auf die Rolle eingegangen, die das familiäre Umfeld spielt. Die Eltern vermitteln ihren Kindern im Allgemeinen nicht nur spezielle Fachkenntnisse eines bestimmten Berufs, sondern auch bestimmte Führungsfähigkeiten, die sich nicht auf einen besonderen Beruf beziehen. Die Eltern, die einen selbständigen Beruf ausüben, übermitteln ihren Kindern somit ein "Denkvermögen“ (Führungsfähigkeiten, eigenständiges Arbeiten), was unabhängig vom gewählten Beruf die Ausübung einer selbständigen Erwerbstätigkeit erleichtert. Die mikroökonomischen Grundlagen der Entscheidung zugunsten einer selbständigen Erwerbstätigkeit unterscheiden sich je nach dem, ob die Betroffenen von ihren selbständigen Eltern einen Transfer von Kompetenzen erhalten haben oder nicht. Beispielsweise ist das Niveau der formellen Bildung für die ersten Generationen der selbständigen Erwerbstätigen (diejenigen, deren Eltern nicht selbständig sind) entscheidender als für die zweiten Generationen der selbständigen Erwerbstätigen (diejenigen, deren Eltern selbständig sind). Die Bedeutung des familiären Umfelds als Determinante der selbständigen Arbeit [eng] Economic literature has given great prominence to the micro-economic reasons behind an individual’s decision to become "self-employed”. Several empirical studies highlight the determining role of one’s fi nancial situation, level of education and family environment. Lafferrère (1998) notes that the probability of being selfemployed is positively correlated with one or both of one’s parents being self-employed workers. Several papers explain this intergenerational correlation of self-employment by underlining the opportunity which self-employed parents have to transfer informal human capital to their children (Dunn and Holtz-Eakin, 2000). This article focuses more closely on identifying the role played by family environment. Parents on the whole are not happy merely to pass on to their children specifi c skills in a given business area, but also a number of managerial abilities which are not specifi c to a particular profession. Self-employed parents therefore pass on to their children an "ability to think” (management skills, capacity to work independently, etc), thus making it possible to work for oneself whatever the profession the child envisages. The micro-economic reasons behind the decision to become self-employed differ depending on whether the individuals have received intergenerational transfers from self-employed parents. For example, the level of formal education is more of a determiner for the fi rst generation of self-employed workers (those parents are not self-employed) than for second-generation self-employed workers (those whose parents are self-employed). The Importance of Family Environment as a Determiner of Self-Employment [fre] La littérature économique a beaucoup discuté les fondements microéconomiques de la décision de choisir le statut d' « indépendant ». Plusieurs études empiriques soulignent le rôle déterminant de la situation financière, du niveau d'éducation et de l'environnement familial. Ainsi, Laferrère (1998) observe que la probabilité d'être indépendant est positivement corrélée au fait d'avoir un ou ses deux parents travailleurs indépendants. Plusieurs travaux expliquent cette corrélation intergénérationnelle du travail indépendant par la possibilité qu'ont les parents travailleurs indépendants à transmettre un capital humain informel à leurs enfants (Dunn et Holtz-Eakin, 2000). Cet article s'attache plus particulièrement à caractériser le rôle joué par l'environnement familial. Les parents ne se contentent généralement pas de transmettre à leurs enfants des compétences spécifiques à un métier donné, mais également certaines aptitudes managériales non spécifiques à une profession particulière. Les parents travailleurs indépendants transmettent donc à leurs enfants un « savoir penser » (aptitudes de management, capacité à travailler de façon autonome) facilitant l'exercice du statut d'indépendant quel que soit le métier envisagé.

Suggested Citation

  • Nathalie Colombier & David Masclet, 2007. "L'importance de l'environnement familial comme déterminant du travail indépendant," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 405(1), pages 99-118.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_2007_num_405_1_7080
    Note: DOI:10.3406/estat.2007.7080
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    1. Céline Bessière & Caroline De Paoli & Muriel Roger & Bénédicte Gouraud, 2011. "Les agriculteurs et leur patrimoine : des indépendants comme les autres ?," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 444(1), pages 55-74.
    2. Sophie BOUTILLIER & Godefroy KIZABA, 2011. "La création de très petites entreprises, territoire et relations sociales. enquête dans la région du Nord-pas de calais (France) CREATION OF VERY SMALL ENTERPRISES, TERRITORY AND SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS ," Working Papers 244, Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO / Research Unit on Industry and Innovation.
    3. Andrew E. Clark & Nathalie Colombier & David Masclet, 2008. "Never the same after the first time: The satisfaction of the second-generation self-employed," Working Papers halshs-00586826, HAL.
    4. repec:dau:papers:123456789/11698 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Sophie BOUTILLIER & Blandine LAPERCHE & Dimitri UZUNIDIS, 2011. "Entrepreneurs Et Reconversion Des Territoires L'Exemple De Dunkerque Milieu Industrialo-Portuaire (Nord, France) Entrepreneurs And Territories Reconstruction The Case Of The Industrial And Port Milieu," Working Papers 242, Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO / Research Unit on Industry and Innovation.

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