IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

L'importance de l'environnement familial comme déterminant du travail indépendant

Listed author(s):
  • Nathalie Colombier
  • David Masclet

[spa] La importancia del entorno familiar como determinante del trabajo independiente. La literatura económica ha discutido mucho los fundamentos microeconómicos de la decisión de elegir el estatuto de "independiente”. Varios estudios empíricos destacan el papel determinante de la situación fi nanciera, del nivel de educación y del entorno familiar. Así pues, Laferrère (1998) observa que la probabilidad de ser independiente se correlaciona positivamente al hecho de tener a uno o a sus dos padres trabajadores independientes. Varios trabajos explican esta correlación intergeneracional del trabajo independiente por la posibilidad que tienen los padres trabajadores independientes de transmitir un capital humano informal a sus hijos (Dunn y Holtz-Eakin, 2000). Este artículo se interesa más concretamente en caracterizar el papel desempeñado por el entorno familiar. Los padres no se limitan generalmente a transmitir a sus hijos competencias específi cas a un ofi cio determinado, sino también algunas aptitudes de gestión no específi cas a una profesión particular. Por lo tanto, los padres trabajadores independientes transmiten a sus hijos un "saber pensar” (aptitudes de dirección, capacidad para trabajar de forma autónoma) que facilita el ejercicio del estatuto de independiente, cualquiera que sea el ofi cio considerado. Los fundamentos microeconómicos de la decisión de elegir el estatuto de independiente difi eren según que los individuos se hayan o no benefi ciado de transmisiones intergeneracionales por parte de padres trabajadores independientes. Por ejemplo, el nivel de educación formal es más determinante para las primeras generaciones de trabajadores independientes (aquellos cuyos padres no son trabajadores independientes) que para las segundas generaciones de trabajadores independientes (aquellos cuyos padres son trabajadores independientes). [ger] In der wirtschaftlichen Fachliteratur wurde viel über die mikroökonomischen Grundlagen bei dem Entschluss diskutiert, sich "selbständig“ zu machen. Mehrere empirische Studien betonen die entscheidende Rolle der fi nanziellen Situation, des Bildungsniveaus und des familiären Umfelds. So stellt Laferrère (1998) fest, dass die Wahrscheinlichkeit einer selbständigen Erwerbstätigkeit in einem positiven Zusammenhang mit der Tatsache steht, dass ein oder beide Elternteile selbständig sind. Mehrere Arbeiten erklären diese Korrelation der selbständigen Arbeit zwischen den Generationen mit der Möglichkeit der selbständigen Eltern, ihren Kindern ein informelles Humankapital zu übermitteln (Dunn und Holtz-Eakin, 2000). In diesem Artikel wird insbesondere auf die Rolle eingegangen, die das familiäre Umfeld spielt. Die Eltern vermitteln ihren Kindern im Allgemeinen nicht nur spezielle Fachkenntnisse eines bestimmten Berufs, sondern auch bestimmte Führungsfähigkeiten, die sich nicht auf einen besonderen Beruf beziehen. Die Eltern, die einen selbständigen Beruf ausüben, übermitteln ihren Kindern somit ein "Denkvermögen“ (Führungsfähigkeiten, eigenständiges Arbeiten), was unabhängig vom gewählten Beruf die Ausübung einer selbständigen Erwerbstätigkeit erleichtert. Die mikroökonomischen Grundlagen der Entscheidung zugunsten einer selbständigen Erwerbstätigkeit unterscheiden sich je nach dem, ob die Betroffenen von ihren selbständigen Eltern einen Transfer von Kompetenzen erhalten haben oder nicht. Beispielsweise ist das Niveau der formellen Bildung für die ersten Generationen der selbständigen Erwerbstätigen (diejenigen, deren Eltern nicht selbständig sind) entscheidender als für die zweiten Generationen der selbständigen Erwerbstätigen (diejenigen, deren Eltern selbständig sind). Die Bedeutung des familiären Umfelds als Determinante der selbständigen Arbeit [eng] Economic literature has given great prominence to the micro-economic reasons behind an individual’s decision to become "self-employed”. Several empirical studies highlight the determining role of one’s fi nancial situation, level of education and family environment. Lafferrère (1998) notes that the probability of being selfemployed is positively correlated with one or both of one’s parents being self-employed workers. Several papers explain this intergenerational correlation of self-employment by underlining the opportunity which self-employed parents have to transfer informal human capital to their children (Dunn and Holtz-Eakin, 2000). This article focuses more closely on identifying the role played by family environment. Parents on the whole are not happy merely to pass on to their children specifi c skills in a given business area, but also a number of managerial abilities which are not specifi c to a particular profession. Self-employed parents therefore pass on to their children an "ability to think” (management skills, capacity to work independently, etc), thus making it possible to work for oneself whatever the profession the child envisages. The micro-economic reasons behind the decision to become self-employed differ depending on whether the individuals have received intergenerational transfers from self-employed parents. For example, the level of formal education is more of a determiner for the fi rst generation of self-employed workers (those parents are not self-employed) than for second-generation self-employed workers (those whose parents are self-employed). The Importance of Family Environment as a Determiner of Self-Employment [fre] La littérature économique a beaucoup discuté les fondements microéconomiques de la décision de choisir le statut d' « indépendant ». Plusieurs études empiriques soulignent le rôle déterminant de la situation financière, du niveau d'éducation et de l'environnement familial. Ainsi, Laferrère (1998) observe que la probabilité d'être indépendant est positivement corrélée au fait d'avoir un ou ses deux parents travailleurs indépendants. Plusieurs travaux expliquent cette corrélation intergénérationnelle du travail indépendant par la possibilité qu'ont les parents travailleurs indépendants à transmettre un capital humain informel à leurs enfants (Dunn et Holtz-Eakin, 2000). Cet article s'attache plus particulièrement à caractériser le rôle joué par l'environnement familial. Les parents ne se contentent généralement pas de transmettre à leurs enfants des compétences spécifiques à un métier donné, mais également certaines aptitudes managériales non spécifiques à une profession particulière. Les parents travailleurs indépendants transmettent donc à leurs enfants un « savoir penser » (aptitudes de management, capacité à travailler de façon autonome) facilitant l'exercice du statut d'indépendant quel que soit le métier envisagé.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.3406/estat.2007.7080
Download Restriction: no

File URL: http://www.persee.fr/doc/estat_0336-1454_2007_num_405_1_7080
Download Restriction: no

Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Economie et statistique.

Volume (Year): 405 (2007)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 99-118

as
in new window

Handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_2007_num_405_1_7080
Note: DOI:10.3406/estat.2007.7080
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.persee.fr/collection/estat

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as
in new window


  1. De Wit, Gerrit & Van Winden, Frans A. A. M., 1990. "An empirical analysis of self-employment in the Netherlands," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 97-100, January.
  2. Douglas Holtz-Eakin & David Joulfaian & Harvey S. Rosen, 1994. "Entrepreneurial Decisions and Liquidity Constraints," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(2), pages 334-347, Summer.
  3. Evans, David S & Leighton, Linda S, 1989. "Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(3), pages 519-535, June.
  4. Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Joulfaian, David & Rosen, Harvey S, 1994. "Sticking It Out: Entrepreneurial Survival and Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(1), pages 53-75, February.
  5. Dolton, Peter J & Makepeace, G H, 1990. "The Earnings of Economics Graduates," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 100(399), pages 237-250, March.
  6. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
  7. Evans, David S & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1989. "An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 808-827, August.
  8. Blanchflower, David G & Oswald, Andrew J, 1998. "What Makes an Entrepreneur?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 26-60, January.
  9. Taylor, Mark P, 1996. "Earnings, Independence or Unemployment: Why Become Self-Employed?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 58(2), pages 253-266, May.
  10. Bernard F. Lentz & David N. Laband, 1990. "Entrepreneurial Success and Occupational Inheritance among Proprietors," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 23(3), pages 563-579, August.
  11. Mundlak, Yair, 1978. "On the Pooling of Time Series and Cross Section Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 69-85, January.
  12. Lindh, Thomas & Ohlsson, Henry, 1998. "Self-Employment and Wealth Inequality," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 44(1), pages 25-42, March.
  13. Solon, Gary, 1992. "Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 393-408, June.
  14. Joseph G. Altonji & Thomas A. Dunn, 1991. "Relationships Among the Family Incomes and Labor Market Outcomes of Relatives," NBER Working Papers 3724, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Carrasco, Raquel, 1999. " Transitions to and from Self-employment in Spain: An Empirical Analysis," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(3), pages 315-341, August.
  16. Olivier Marchand, 1998. "Salariat et non-salariat dans une perspective historique," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 319(1), pages 3-11.
  17. Kihlstrom, Richard E & Laffont, Jean-Jacques, 1979. "A General Equilibrium Entrepreneurial Theory of Firm Formation Based on Risk Aversion," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(4), pages 719-748, August.
  18. Magnac, Thierry & Robin, Jean-Marc, 1996. "Occupational choice and liquidity constraints," Ricerche Economiche, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 105-133, June.
  19. Zimmerman, David J, 1992. "Regression toward Mediocrity in Economic Stature," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 409-429, June.
  20. Chamberlain, Gary, 1984. "Panel data," Handbook of Econometrics,in: Z. Griliches† & M. D. Intriligator (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 22, pages 1247-1318 Elsevier.
  21. Dominique Rouault, 2001. "Les revenus des indépendants et dirigeants : la valorisation du bagage personnel," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 348(1), pages 35-59.
  22. Rees, Hedley & Shah, Anup, 1986. "An Empirical Analysis of Self-employment in the U.K," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 1(1), pages 95-108, January.
  23. Van Praag, C Mirjam & Van Ophem, Hans, 1995. "Determinants of Willingness and Opportunity to Start as an Entrepreneur," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(4), pages 513-540.
  24. Macpherson, David A., 1988. "Self-employment and married women," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 281-284.
  25. Bruce D. Meyer, 1990. "Why Are There So Few Black Entrepreneurs?," NBER Working Papers 3537, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  26. Guillermo A. Calvo & Stanislaw Wellisz, 1980. "Technology, Entrepreneurs, and Firm Size," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 95(4), pages 663-677.
  27. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_2007_num_405_1_7080. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Equipe PERSEE)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.