IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ice/wpaper/wp72.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The long history of financial boom-bust cycles in Iceland - Part II: Financial cycles

Author

Listed:
  • Bjarni G. Einarsson
  • Kristófer Gunnlaugsson
  • Thorvardur Tjörvi Ólafsson
  • Thórarinn G. Pétursson

Abstract

Claudio Borio recently quipped that “macroeconomics without the financial cycle is like Hamlet without the Prince” (Borio, 2014, p. 183). We rise to his call to arms and tackle the Prince’s existential question head-on. Our findings suggest that there exists a well-defined financial cycle in Iceland that has gradually become more prominent as the financial deepening and sophistication of the economy has increased. Using a dataset spanning more than a century, including data on credit, house prices, and bank balance sheet size and composition, we find that the aggregate financial cycle is much longer than the typical business cycle, with a median duration of sixteen years. We find that there is a large difference in economic performance over different phases of the financial cycle, suggesting that it has played a prominent role in the country’s macroeconomic development. In fact, we find that almost all of the peaks in the financial cycle coincide with some type of a financial crisis and that cyclical expansions provide a robust early-warning signal for subsequent crises. We find strikingly strong ties between the Icelandic financial cycle and its global counterpart (proxied by the US financial cycle), with almost all of the cyclical peaks in the Icelandic financial cycle occurring close to peaks in the global cycle. Our findings suggest that understanding economic fluctuations in Iceland is hard without understanding the financial cycle and that we ignore the financial cycle at our peril. We conclude with a first attempt at exploring some of the policy questions that our findings raise.

Suggested Citation

  • Bjarni G. Einarsson & Kristófer Gunnlaugsson & Thorvardur Tjörvi Ólafsson & Thórarinn G. Pétursson, 2016. "The long history of financial boom-bust cycles in Iceland - Part II: Financial cycles," Economics wp72, Department of Economics, Central bank of Iceland.
  • Handle: RePEc:ice:wpaper:wp72
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://cb.is/library/Skraarsafn---EN/Working-Papers/WP_72.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Mark Gertler, 1988. "Financial structure and aggregate economic activity: an overview," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 559-596.
    2. Jordà, Òscar & Schularick, Moritz & Taylor, Alan M., 2015. "Leveraged bubbles," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(S), pages 1-20.
    3. Philip R. Lane & Peter McQuade, 2014. "Domestic Credit Growth and International Capital Flows," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 116(1), pages 218-252, January.
    4. Claudio Borio & Marco Jacopo Lombardi & Fabrizio Zampolli, 2016. "Fiscal sustainability and the financial cycle," BIS Working Papers 552, Bank for International Settlements.
    5. Graciela Kaminsky & Saul Lizondo & Carmen M. Reinhart, 1998. "Leading Indicators of Currency Crises," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 45(1), pages 1-48, March.
    6. Bjarni G. Einarsson & Gudjón Emilsson & Svava J. Haraldsdóttir & Thórarinn G. Pétursson & Rósa B. Sveinsdóttir, 2013. "On our own? The Icelandic business cycle in an international context," Economics wp63, Department of Economics, Central bank of Iceland.
    7. Morris Goldstein & Graciela Kaminsky & Carmen Reinhart, 2017. "Methodology and Empirical Results," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: TRADE CURRENCIES AND FINANCE, chapter 11, pages 397-436 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    8. Anton Korinek, 2011. "The New Economics of Prudential Capital Controls: A Research Agenda," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 59(3), pages 523-561, August.
    9. Mark Aguiar & Gita Gopinath, 2007. "Emerging Market Business Cycles: The Cycle Is the Trend," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 115, pages 69-102.
    10. Anton Korinek, 2011. "The New Economics of Capital Controls Imposed for Prudential Reasons+L4888," IMF Working Papers 11/298, International Monetary Fund.
    11. Carmen M. Reinhart & Graciela L. Kaminsky, 1999. "The Twin Crises: The Causes of Banking and Balance-of-Payments Problems," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 473-500, June.
    12. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2009. "Is the 2007 U.S. Sub-Prime Financial Crisis So Different? An International Historical Comparison," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 56(3), pages 291-299, September.
    13. Moritz Schularick & Alan M. Taylor, 2012. "Credit Booms Gone Bust: Monetary Policy, Leverage Cycles, and Financial Crises, 1870-2008," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(2), pages 1029-1061, April.
    14. Bruno, Valentina & Shin, Hyun Song, 2015. "Capital flows and the risk-taking channel of monetary policy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 119-132.
    15. Reinhart, Karmen & Rogoff, Kenneth, 2009. ""This time is different": panorama of eight centuries of financial crises," Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, vol. 1, pages 77-114, March.
    16. Claessens, Stijn & Kose, M. Ayhan & Terrones, Marco E., 2012. "How do business and financial cycles interact?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 178-190.
    17. Hyun Song Shin, 2017. "Breaking free of the triple coincidence in international finance," IFC Bulletins chapters,in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Statistical implications of the new financial landscape, volume 43 Bank for International Settlements.
    18. Francis Breedon & Thórarinn Pétursson & Andrew Rose, 2012. "Exchange Rate Policy in Small Rich Economies," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 421-445, July.
    19. Alan M. Taylor, 2015. "Credit, Financial Stability, and the Macroeconomy," NBER Working Papers 21039, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    20. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2009. "Varieties of Crises and Their Dates," Introductory Chapters,in: This Time Is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly Princeton University Press.
    21. Diego Comin & Mark Gertler, 2006. "Medium-Term Business Cycles," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(3), pages 523-551, June.
    22. Michael D. Bordo & Olivier Jeanne, 2002. "Boom-Busts in Asset Prices, Economic Instability, and Monetary Policy," NBER Working Papers 8966, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    23. Broner, Fernando & Didier, Tatiana & Erce, Aitor & Schmukler, Sergio L., 2013. "Gross capital flows: Dynamics and crises," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 113-133.
    24. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2011. "From Financial Crash to Debt Crisis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(5), pages 1676-1706, August.
    25. Arthur F. Burns & Wesley C. Mitchell, 1946. "Measuring Business Cycles," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number burn46-1.
    26. Reinhart, Carmen & Goldstein, Morris & Kaminsky, Graciela, 2000. "Assessing financial vulnerability, an early warning system for emerging markets: Introduction," MPRA Paper 13629, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    27. repec:ecb:fsrart:2014:0002:2 is not listed on IDEAS
    28. Rabah Benkemoune, 2009. "Charles Dunoyer and the Emergence of the Idea of an Economic Cycle," History of Political Economy, Duke University Press, vol. 41(2), pages 271-295, Summer.
    29. Graciela L. Kaminsky & Carmen M. Reinhart & Carlos A. Végh, 2003. "The Unholy Trinity of Financial Contagion," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 17(4), pages 51-74, Fall.
    30. Danielsson, Jon & Shin, Hyun Song & Zigrand, Jean-Pierre, 2004. "The impact of risk regulation on price dynamics," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 1069-1087, May.
    31. Bjarni G. Einarsson & Kristófer Gunnlaugsson & Thorvardur Tjörvi Ólafsson & Thórarinn G. Pétursson, 2015. "The long history of financial boom-bust cycles in Iceland - Part I: Financial crises," Economics wp68, Department of Economics, Central bank of Iceland.
    32. Harding, Don & Pagan, Adrian, 2006. "Synchronization of cycles," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 132(1), pages 59-79, May.
    33. Forbes, Kristin J. & Warnock, Francis E., 2012. "Capital flow waves: Surges, stops, flight, and retrenchment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 235-251.
    34. Claudio Borio, 2014. "The financial cycle and macroeconomics: what have we learned and what are the policy implications?," Chapters,in: Financial Cycles and the Real Economy, chapter 2, pages 10-35 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    35. Harding, Don & Pagan, Adrian, 2002. "Dissecting the cycle: a methodological investigation," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 365-381, March.
    36. Hyun Song Shin & Kwanho Shin, 2011. "Procyclicality and Monetary Aggregates," NBER Working Papers 16836, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    37. Joon‐Ho Hahm & Hyun Song Shin & Kwanho Shin, 2013. "Noncore Bank Liabilities and Financial Vulnerability," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 45, pages 3-36, August.
    38. Òscar Jordà & Moritz Schularick & Alan M. Taylor, 2013. "When Credit Bites Back," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 45(s2), pages 3-28, December.
    39. Schoenmaker, Dirk, 2013. "Governance of International Banking: The Financial Trilemma," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199971596.
    40. Borio, Claudio, 2014. "The financial cycle and macroeconomics: What have we learnt?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 182-198.
    41. Valentina Bruno & Hyun Song Shin, 2015. "Cross-Border Banking and Global Liquidity," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 82(2), pages 535-564.
    42. Robert J. Barro & Jose F. Ursua, 2008. "Macroeconomic Crises since 1870," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 39(1 (Spring), pages 255-350.
    43. Helge Berger & Thomas Dowling & Sergi Lanau & Mico Mrkaic & Pau Rabanal & Marzie Taheri Sanjani, 2015. "Steady as She Goes—Estimating Potential Output During Financial “Booms and Busts”," IMF Working Papers 15/233, International Monetary Fund.
    44. Luc Laeven & Fabián Valencia, 2013. "Systemic Banking Crises Database," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 61(2), pages 225-270, June.
    45. Claudio Borio & Robert McCauley & Patrick McGuire, 2011. "Global credit and domestic credit booms," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, September.
    46. Már Guðmundsson & Thórarinn G. Pétursson & Arnór Sighvatsson, 2000. "Optimal Exchange Rate Policy: The Case of Iceland," Economics wp08, Department of Economics, Central bank of Iceland.
    47. Hyun Jeong Kim & Hyun Song Shin & Jacho Yun, 2013. "Monetary Aggregates and the Central Bank’s Financial Stability Mandate," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 9(1), pages 69-108, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Bjarni G. Einarsson & Kristófer Gunnlaugsson & Thorvardur Tjörvi Ólafsson & Thórarinn G. Pétursson, 2016. "Small open economies in the vast oceanof global high finance," Economics wp73, Department of Economics, Central bank of Iceland.
    2. Thorgeirsson, Thorsteinn, 2018. "New Frontiers in the Euro Debate in Iceland," MPRA Paper 90607, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. repec:pal:buseco:v:52:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1057_s11369-017-0035-3 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ice:wpaper:wp72. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Central Bank of Iceland). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/sedgvis.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.