Gender Inequality and Emigration: Push factor or Selection process?
Our objective in this research is to provide empirical evidence relating to the linkages between gender equality and international emigration. Two theoretical hypotheses can be made for the purpose of analyzing such linkages. The fi rst is that gender inequality in origin countries could be a push factor for women. The second one is that gender inequality may create a \gender bias" in the selection of migrants within a household or a community. An improvement of gender equality would then increase female migration. We build several original indices of gender equality using principal component analysis. Our empirical results show that the push factor hypothesis is clearly rejected. All else held constant, improving gender equality in the workplace is positively correlated with the migration of women, especially of the high-skilled. We observe the opposite e ffect for low-skilled men. This result is robust to several speci cations and to various measurements of gender equality.
|Date of creation:||01 Dec 2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Note:||View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00829526|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Matthias Busse & Christian Spielmann, 2006.
"Gender Inequality and Trade,"
Review of International Economics,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(3), pages 362-379, 08.
- Spielmann, Christian & Busse, Matthias, 2005. "Gender Inequality and Trade," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Kiel 2005 8, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
- Busse, Matthias & Spielmann, Christian, 2004. "Gender Inequality and Trade," HWWA Discussion Papers 308, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
- William A. Darity & Patrick L. Mason, 1998. "Evidence on Discrimination in Employment: Codes of Color, Codes of Gender," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(2), pages 63-90, Spring.
- Hatton, Timothy J. & Williamson, Jeffrey G., 2003.
"What Fundamentals Drive World Migration?,"
Working Paper Series
UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Timothy Hatton & Jeffery Williamson, 2002. "What Fundamentals Drive World Migration?," CEPR Discussion Papers 458, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
- Timothy J. Hatton & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 2002. "What Fundamentals Drive World Migration?," NBER Working Papers 9159, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hatton, Timothy J. & Williamson, Jeffrey G, 2002. "What Fundamentals Drive World Migration?," CEPR Discussion Papers 3559, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Herbert Brücker & Philipp J.H. Schroeder, 2011.
"International Migration with Heterogeneous Agents: Theory and Evidence for Germany, 1967-2009,"
Norface Discussion Paper Series
2011027, Norface Research Programme on Migration, Department of Economics, University College London.
- Herbert Brücker & Philipp J. H. Schröder, 2012. "International Migration With Heterogeneous Agents: Theory and Evidence for Germany, 1967–2009," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(2), pages 152-182, 02.
- Lundberg, Shelly & Startz, Richard, 1998.
"On the Persistence of Racial Inequality,"
Journal of Labor Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(2), pages 292-323, April.
- Lundberg, S.J.Startz, R., 1994. "On the Persistence of Racial Inequality," Working Papers 94-07, University of Washington, Department of Economics.
- Lundberg, S.J.Startz, R., 1994. "On the Persistence of Racial Inequality," Discussion Papers in Economics at the University of Washington 94-07, Department of Economics at the University of Washington.
- Lundberg, S. & Startz, R., 1992. "On the Persistence of Racial Inequality," Working Papers 92-04, University of Washington, Department of Economics.
- Lundberg, S. & Startz, R., 1992. "On the Persistence of Racial Inequality," Discussion Papers in Economics at the University of Washington 92-04, Department of Economics at the University of Washington.
- Frédéric Docquier & B. Lindsay Lowell & Abdeslam Marfouk, 2009. "A Gendered Assessment of Highly Skilled Emigration," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 35(2), pages 297-321.
- Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
- Gaëlle Ferrant, 2010. "The Gender Inequalities Index (GII) as a new way to measure Gender Inequalities in Developing countries," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00462463, HAL.
- Lucas, Robert E B & Stark, Oded, 1985. "Motivations to Remit: Evidence from Botswana," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(5), pages 901-18, October.
- Dumont, Jean-Christophe & Martin, John P. & Spielvogel, Gilles, 2007. "Women on the Move: The Neglected Gender Dimension of the Brain Drain," IZA Discussion Papers 2920, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Coate, Stephen & Loury, Glenn C, 1993.
"Will Affirmative-Action Policies Eliminate Negative Stereotypes?,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 83(5), pages 1220-40, December.
- Coate, S. & Loury, G.C., 1992. "Will Affirmative Action Policies Eliminate Negative Stereotypes?," Papers 3, Boston University - Department of Economics.
- Durlauf, Steven N, 1996.
"A Theory of Persistent Income Inequality,"
Journal of Economic Growth,
Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 75-93, March.
- Seguino, Stephanie, 2000. "Gender Inequality and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(7), pages 1211-1230, July.
- Heckman, James J, 1979.
"Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error,"
Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
- Stephan Klasen & Francesca Lamanna, 2009. "The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education and Employment on Economic Growth: New Evidence for a Panel of Countries," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 91-132.
- Everett Lee, 1966. "A theory of migration," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 3(1), pages 47-57, March.
- Lagerlof, Nils-Petter, 2003. "Gender Equality and Long-Run Growth," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 8(4), pages 403-26, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-00829526. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (CCSD)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.