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Female migration: A way out of discrimination?

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  • Ruyssen, Ilse
  • Salomone, Sara

Abstract

In light of the recent feminization of migration, we empirically explore to what extent worldwide female migration can be explained by perceived gender discrimination. Making use of unique individual level data, we track women's intention and preparation to migrate from 148 countries between 2009–2013 and disentangle how individual perceptions of gender discrimination can foster or impede female migration across countries. We perform extensive robustness checks to mitigate concerns about potential threats to identification posed by measurement error and unobservables. Our evidence indicates that women who do not feel treated with respect and dignity have a higher incentive to migrate abroad. The likelihood that these migration intentions are turned into actual preparations, however, depends on more traditional determinants such as household income, network effects and family obligations. Furthermore, we also show that more intense gender imbalances in economic and political opportunities prevent women from actually moving abroad.

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  • Ruyssen, Ilse & Salomone, Sara, 2018. "Female migration: A way out of discrimination?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 130(C), pages 224-241.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:deveco:v:130:y:2018:i:c:p:224-241
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2017.10.010
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    Cited by:

    1. Ruxanda Berlinschi & Ani Harutyunyan, 2016. "Do migrants think differently? Evidence from East European and post-Soviet states," LICOS Discussion Papers 38116, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
    2. repec:eee:wdevel:v:109:y:2018:i:c:p:360-374 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Docquier, Frédéric & Tansel, Aysit & Turati, Riccardo, 2017. "Do emigrants self-select along cultural traits? Evidence from the MENA countries," MPRA Paper 82778, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. repec:eee:regeco:v:68:y:2018:i:c:p:56-72 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Chabé-Ferret, Bastien & Machado, Joël & Wahba, Jackline, 2018. "Remigration intentions and migrants' behavior," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 56-72.
    6. Frédéric Docquier & Aysit Tansel & Riccardo Turati, 2017. "Do Emigrants Self-Select Along Cultural Traits? Evidence from the MENA Countries," CESifo Working Paper Series 6777, CESifo Group Munich.
    7. Chabé-Ferret, Bastien & Machado, Joël & Wahba, Jackline, 2018. "Remigration intentions and migrants' behavior," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 56-72.
    8. Elveren, Adem Yavuz & Toksöz, Gülay, 2017. "Why Don’t Highly Skilled Women Want to Return? Turkey’s Brain Drain from a Gender Perspective," MPRA Paper 80290, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:3:p:618-:d:133804 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Manchin, Miriam & Orazbayev, Sultan, 2018. "Social networks and the intention to migrate," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 360-374.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Female migration; Gender discrimination; Migration intentions; Selection model;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • C35 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions
    • Z10 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - General

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