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Female Migration: A Way out of Discrimination?

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  • Ilse Ruyssen
  • Sara Salomone

Abstract

In light of the recent feminization of migration, we empirically explore to what extent worldwide female migration can be explained by perceived gender discrimination. Thanks to unique individual level data, we track women’s willingness and preparation to emigrate from 150 countries between 2009-2013 and disentangle how perceived gender discrimination can foster or impede female emigration across countries. Our empirical strategy accounts for country of origin fixed effects and is robust to both sample selection bias and potential endogeneity issues. Perceived gender discrimination is shown to form a strong and highly robust incentive to emigrate. Yet, whether those migration aspirations are turned into actual preparations is determined by more traditional push factors such as household income or network effects and constraints such as family obligations. In very poor (sub-Saharan African) countries, however, perceived gender discrimination acts as an obstacle, preventing women from actually moving abroad. This paper presents research output of the Ifo Center of Excellence for Migration and Integration Research (CEMIR)

Suggested Citation

  • Ilse Ruyssen & Sara Salomone, 2015. "Female Migration: A Way out of Discrimination?," CESifo Working Paper Series 5572, CESifo.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_5572
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    Cited by:

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    2. Michel Beine & Michel Bierlaire & Frédéric Docquier, 2021. "New York, Abu Dhabi, London or Stay at Home? Using a Cross-Nested Logit Model to Identify Complex Substitution Patterns in Migration," LISER Working Paper Series 2021-01, LISER.
    3. Chabé-Ferret, Bastien & Machado, Joël & Wahba, Jackline, 2018. "Remigration intentions and migrants' behavior," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 56-72.
    4. Aksoy, Cevat Giray, 2021. "Refugees’ and Irregular Migrants’ Self-selection into Europe," SocArXiv bf7sy, Center for Open Science.
    5. Manchin, Miriam & Orazbayev, Sultan, 2018. "Social networks and the intention to migrate," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 360-374.
    6. Xiaomei Fan & Hongguang Liu & Zimeng Zhang & Jie Zhang, 2018. "The Spatio-Temporal Characteristics and Modeling Research of Inter-Provincial Migration in China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(3), pages 1-14, February.
    7. Smith, Michael D. & Floro, Maria S., 2020. "Food insecurity, gender, and international migration in low- and middle-income countries," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 91(C).
    8. Lee, Tae Hoon & Peri, Giovanni & Viarengo, Martina, 2020. "The Gender Aspect of Immigrants' Assimilation in Europe," IZA Discussion Papers 13922, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    9. Ruxanda Berlinschi & Ani Harutyunyan, 2016. "Do migrants think differently? Evidence from East European and post-Soviet states," Working Papers of LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance 551444, KU Leuven, Faculty of Economics and Business (FEB), LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance.
    10. Riccardo Turati, 2021. "Do you want to migrate to the United States? Migration intentions and Cultural Traits in Latin America," Working Papers wpdea2101, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
    11. Simone BERTOLI & Frédéric DOCQUIER & Hillel RAPOPORT & Ilse RUYSSEN, 2019. "Weather shocks and migration intentions in Western Africa: Insights from a multilevel analysis," Working Paper c5999d24-4da2-42c5-8c94-e, Agence française de développement.
    12. Michel Beine & Joël Machado & Ilse Ruyssen, 2020. "Do potential migrants internalize migrant rights in OECD host societies?," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 53(4), pages 1429-1456, November.
    13. Elveren, Adem Yavuz & Toksöz, Gülay, 2017. "Why Don’t Highly Skilled Women Want to Return? Turkey’s Brain Drain from a Gender Perspective," MPRA Paper 80290, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Schmid, Lena & Renner, Laura, 2020. "The Decision to Flee: Analyzing Gender-Specific Determinants of International Refugee Migration," VfS Annual Conference 2020 (Virtual Conference): Gender Economics 224596, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    15. Chabé-Ferret, Bastien & Machado, Joël & Wahba, Jackline, 2018. "Remigration intentions and migrants' behavior," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 56-72.
    16. Nadiya Ukrayinchuk & Olena Havrylchyk, 2020. "Living in limbo: Economic and social costs for refugees," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 53(4), pages 1523-1551, November.
    17. Riccardo Turati, 2020. "Network-based Connectedness and the Diffusion of Cultural Traits," LIDAM Discussion Papers IRES 2020012, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
    18. Hillel Rapoport & Sulin Sardoschau & Arthur Silve, 2020. "Migration and Cultural Change," Working Papers 2020-10, CEPII research center.
    19. Docquier, Frédéric & Tansel, Aysit & Turati, Riccardo, 2017. "Do emigrants self-select along cultural traits? Evidence from the MENA countries," MPRA Paper 82778, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Frédéric Docquier & Aysit Tansel & Riccardo Turati, 2017. "Do Emigrants Self-Select Along Cultural Traits? Evidence from the MENA Countries," CESifo Working Paper Series 6777, CESifo.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    female migration; gender discrimination; migration desire; conditional logit model;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • C35 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions
    • Z10 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - General

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