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A model of labeling with horizontal differentiation and cost variability:

We study optimal disclosure of variety by a multi-product firm with random costs. In our model there are two varieties that are horizontally differentiated and differ in overall quality, but buyers cannot distinguish between them without labels. The equilibrium prices for labeled varieties are increasing functions of the absolute value of the cost differential and do not reveal which variety is cheaper to produce. Nondisclosure is most common when there is moderate uncertainty about the relative input cost, not too much idiosyncrasy in consumer valuations, and not too much difference in quality across varieties. Although mandatory disclosure of variety benefits consumers, it decreases expected welfare when relative input cost variability is large and quality asymmetry is small. The cheaper variety tends to be oversupplied (undersupplied) when disclosure is voluntary (mandatory). Competition among multi-product firms that source inputs in the same upstream market may not lead to more disclosure."

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Paper provided by International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in its series IFPRI discussion papers with number 1075.

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Date of creation: 2011
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Handle: RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1075
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  1. Jones, Keithly G. & Somwaru, Agapi & Whitaker, James B., 2009. "Country of Origin Labeling: Evaluating the Impacts on U.S. and World Markets," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 38(3), December.
  2. Dermot J. Hayes & Sergio H. Lence & Andrea Stoppa, 2003. "Farmer-Owned Brands?," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 02-bp39, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
  3. Jayson L. Lusk & Jason Brown & Tyler Mark & Idlir Proseku & Rachel Thompson & Jody Welsh, 2006. "Consumer Behavior, Public Policy, and Country-of-Origin Labeling," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 28(2), pages 284-292.
  4. Lewis, Tracy R & Sappington, David E M, 1994. "Supplying Information to Facilitate Price Discrimination," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 35(2), pages 309-27, May.
  5. Daughety, Andrew F. & Reinganum, Jennifer F., 2007. "Competition and confidentiality: Signaling quality in a duopoly when there is universal private information," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 94-120, January.
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  8. Giuseppe Moscarini & Marco Ottaviani, 1998. "Price Competition for an Informed Buyer," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1199, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  9. David P. Myatt & Justin P. Johnson, 2004. "On the Simple Economics of Advertising, Marketing, and Product Design," Economics Series Working Papers 185, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  10. Unnevehr, Laurian J. & Jagmanaite, Evelina, 2008. "Getting rid of trans fats in the US diet: Policies, incentives and progress," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 497-503, December.
  11. Oliver Board, 2009. "COMPETITION AND DISCLOSURE -super-* ," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(1), pages 197-213, 03.
  12. Langinier Corinne & Babcock Bruce A., 2008. "Agricultural Production Clubs: Viability and Welfare Implications," Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, De Gruyter, vol. 6(1), pages 1-31, December.
  13. Wolinsky, Asher, 1987. "Brand Names and Price Discrimination," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(3), pages 255-68, March.
  14. Golan, Elise & Unnevehr, Laurian, 2008. "Food product composition, consumer health, and public policy: Introduction and overview of special section," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 465-469, December.
  15. Zago, Angelo M. & Pick, Daniel H., 2004. "Labeling Policies in Food Markets: Private Incentives, Public Intervention, and Welfare Effects," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 29(01), April.
  16. Dan Levin & James Peck & Lixin Ye, 2009. "QUALITY DISCLOSURE AND COMPETITION -super-* ," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(1), pages 167-196, 03.
  17. Lence, Sergio H. & Marette, Stephan & Hayes, Dermot J. & Forster, Bruce A., 2007. "Collective Marketing Arrangements for Geographically Differentiated Agricultural Products: Welfare Impacts and Policy Implications," Staff General Research Papers 12758, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  18. Monic Sun, 2011. "Disclosing Multiple Product Attributes," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(1), pages 195-224, 03.
  19. Stephan Marette & Roxanne Clemens & Bruce Babcock, 2008. "Recent international and regulatory decisions about geographical indications," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(4), pages 453-472.
  20. Moschini, GianCarlo & Menapace, Luisa & Pick, Daniel, 2008. "Geographical Indications and the Competitive Provision of Quality in Agricultural Markets," Staff General Research Papers 12858, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  21. Simon P. Anderson & Régis Renault, 2002. "Advertising Content," Virginia Economics Online Papers 362, University of Virginia, Department of Economics.
  22. Colin Carter & Barry Krissoff & Alix Peterson Zwane, 2006. "Can Country-of-Origin Labeling Succeed as a Marketing Tool for Produce? Lessons from Three Case Studies," Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d'agroeconomie, Canadian Agricultural Economics Society/Societe canadienne d'agroeconomie, vol. 54(4), pages 513-530, December.
  23. Sanford Grossman & Oliver Hart, . "Disclosure Laws and Takeover Bids," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 23-79, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
  24. Alexander E. Saak, 2008. "THE VALUE OF PRIVATE INFORMATION IN MONOPOLY -super-* ," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 56(1), pages 169-189, 03.
  25. Marco Ottaviani & Andrea Prat, 2001. "The Value of Public Information in Monopoly," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(6), pages 1673-1683, November.
  26. Verbeke, Wim & Roosen, Jutta, 2009. "Market Differentiation Potential of Country-of-origin, Quality and Traceability Labeling," Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, Estey Centre for Law and Economics in International Trade, vol. 10(1).
  27. Hayes, Dermot J. & Lence, Sergio H. & Babcock, Bruce A., 2005. "Geographic Indications and Farmer-Owned Brands: Why Do the U.S. And E.U. Disagree?," Staff General Research Papers 12418, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
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