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Factor Mobility and the Distribution of Economic Activity in Integrated Economies: Evidence and Implications


  • Harry P. Bowen
  • Haris Munundar
  • Jean-Marie Viaene


This study examines empirically factor mobility and distribution of economic activity under economic integration, with the result that the benchmark of the equal-share relationship holds strongly for US states and less so for EU countries, but does not hold for Developing Countries or the World. Recent research (Bowen, Munandar and Viaene, 2005) shows that for a country who is a member of a fully integrated economy, its shares of the integrated economy's total output and stocks of productive factors (i.e., physical and human capital) will be equal. They label this result the equal-share relationship. In this paper, we empirically examine for evidence of the equal-share relationship for alternative economic groups (i.e., US states, EU countries, Developing Countries and a World comprising 55 countries). Our findings indicate that the equal-share relationship holds strongly for US states, less so for EU countries, but does not hold for Developing Countries or the World.

Suggested Citation

  • Harry P. Bowen & Haris Munundar & Jean-Marie Viaene, 2008. "Factor Mobility and the Distribution of Economic Activity in Integrated Economies: Evidence and Implications," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 315, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
  • Handle: RePEc:euf:ecopap:0315

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Greenwood, Jeremy & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1990. "Financial Development, Growth, and the Distribution of Income," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 1076-1107, October.
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    3. Ross Levine, 1997. "Financial Development and Economic Growth: Views and Agenda," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(2), pages 688-726, June.
    4. repec:dgr:rugggd:200363 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Barro, Robert J. & Lee, Jong-Wha, 1993. "International comparisons of educational attainment," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 363-394, December.
    6. Timmer, Marcel P. & Ypma, Gerard & Ark, Bart van der, 2003. "IT in the European Union: driving productivity divergence?," GGDC Research Memorandum 200363, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, University of Groningen.
    7. Durlauf, Steven N. & Quah, Danny T., 1999. "The new empirics of economic growth," Handbook of Macroeconomics,in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 4, pages 235-308 Elsevier.
    8. Bowen, H.P. & Munandar, H. & Viaene, J.M., 2006. "The distribution of output in integrated economies: theory and evidence," Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School Working Paper Series 2006-32, Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School.
    9. Robert Summers & Alan Heston, 1991. "The Penn World Table (Mark 5): An Expanded Set of International Comparisons, 1950–1988," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 327-368.
    10. Barro, Robert J & Lee, Jong Wha, 1996. "International Measures of Schooling Years and Schooling Quality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 218-223, May.
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