IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/rnd/arimbr/v8y2017i6p39-58.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

An Empirical Investigation on the Role of exports, imports and it’s Determinants in Foreign Trade of Pakistan

Author

Listed:
  • Gulzar Ali
  • Zhaohua Li

Abstract

Abstract: Foreign trade was restrained by fluctuations and depreciations in currencies, nations were under financial pressure to implement protection measures in form of custom duties tariffs. These theories and thoughts have enormous impact on rules and policies of global trade throughout the world. To adopt economic liberalization and free trade zones nations all over the world are connected through number of agreements since last few centuries. In this revolutionized economic system, nations allow free trading of merchandise and services and at the same time don’t have to impose tariff in form of import and exports duties. This study attempted to empirically evaluate the role of imports, exports and its determinants in foreign trade of Pakistan applied ARDL Approach for the period of 1972-2015. The study recommends that economies with significant competitiveness and comparative advantage will be greatly benefited from export promoting policies. As far as trade partners are concerned, no considerable efforts have been done to explore new markets in direction of Pakistan’s foreign trade since its independence. The key trading partners of Pakistan in the beginning were the developed countries of West and still they are main trading partners of Pakistan.Keywords: Foreign Trade, Imports, Exports, ARDL Approach and Stability Analysis

Suggested Citation

  • Gulzar Ali & Zhaohua Li, 2017. "An Empirical Investigation on the Role of exports, imports and it’s Determinants in Foreign Trade of Pakistan," Information Management and Business Review, AMH International, vol. 8(6), pages 39-58.
  • Handle: RePEc:rnd:arimbr:v:8:y:2017:i:6:p:39-58
    DOI: 10.22610/imbr.v8i6.1517.g1373
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://ojs.amhinternational.com/index.php/imbr/article/view/1517/1373
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://ojs.amhinternational.com/index.php/imbr/article/view/1517
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Richard Baldwin, 2016. "The World Trade Organization and the Future of Multilateralism," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 30(1), pages 95-116, Winter.
    2. Amelia Santos-Paulino & A. P. Thirlwall, 2004. "The impact of trade liberalisation on exports, imports and the balance of payments of developing countries," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(493), pages 50-72, February.
    3. Muhammad Zakaria, 2014. "Effects of Trade Liberalization on Exports, Imports and Trade Balance in Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis," Prague Economic Papers, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2014(1), pages 121-139.
    4. Richard E. Baldwin & Toshihiro Okubo, 2014. "International Trade, Offshoring and Heterogeneous Firms," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(1), pages 59-72, February.
    5. Jarita Duasa, 2007. "Determinants of Malaysian Trade Balance: An ARDL Bound Testing Approach," Global Economic Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(1), pages 89-102.
    6. Eaton, Jonathan & Kortum, Samuel, 2001. "Trade in capital goods," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(7), pages 1195-1235.
    7. Dorosh, Paul & Valdés, Alberto, 1990. "Effects of exchange rate and trade policies on agriculture in Pakistan:," Research reports 84, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    8. Siddiqui, Amir Hussain & Iqbal, Javed, 2005. "Impact of trade openness on output growth for Pakistan: an empirical investigation," MPRA Paper 23757, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Jesús Crespo Cuaresma & Julia Wörz, 2005. "On Export Composition and Growth," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 141(1), pages 33-49, April.
    10. Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee, 2001. "Nominal and real effective exchange rates of middle eastern countries and their trade performance," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(1), pages 103-111.
    11. Romain Wacziarg & Karen Horn Welch, 2008. "Trade Liberalization and Growth: New Evidence," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 22(2), pages 187-231, June.
    12. Sajjad Akhtar, 2003. "Is There Seasonality in Pakistan’s Merchandise Exports and Imports? The Univariate Modelling Approach," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(1), pages 59-75.
    13. Mathews, Kenneth H., Jr. & Bernstein, Jason & Buzby, Jean C., 2004. "Food Safety Issues for Meat/Poultry Products and International Trade," Agricultural Information Bulletins 33637, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    14. Paul Dorosh & Abdul Salam, 2008. "Wheat Markets and Price Stabilisation in Pakistan: An Analysis of Policy Options," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 47(1), pages 71-87.
    15. Michael E. Waugh, 2010. "International Trade and Income Differences," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(5), pages 2093-2124, December.
    16. Christopher Blattman & Jason Hwang & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 2003. "The Terms of Trade and Economic Growth in the Periphery 1870-1938," NBER Working Papers 9940, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Kalsoom Zulfiqar & Rukhsana Kausar, 2012. "Trade Liberalization, Exchange Rate And Export Growth In Pakistan," Far East Journal of Psychology and Business, Far East Research Centre, vol. 9(3), pages 32-47, November.
    18. Jamal Bouoiyour & Serge Rey, 2005. "Exchange Rate Regime, Real Exchange Rate, Trade Flows and Foreign Direct Investments: The Case of Morocco," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 17(2), pages 302-334.
    19. Jing Ma & Yuduo Lu, 2011. "Free Trade or Protection: A Literature Review on Trade Barriers," Research in World Economy, Research in World Economy, Sciedu Press, vol. 2(1), pages 69-76, April.
    20. Li, Xiaoying & Liu, Xiaming, 2005. "Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: An Increasingly Endogenous Relationship," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 393-407, March.
    21. M. Ali Kemal, 2005. "Exchange Rate Instability and Trade. The Case of Pakistan," PIDE-Working Papers 2005:186, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    22. Dollar, David & Kraay, Aart, 2003. "Institutions, trade, and growth : revisiting the evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3004, The World Bank.
    23. Michael Sposi & B Ravikumar & Piyusha Mutreja, 2014. "Capital goods trade and economic development," 2014 Meeting Papers 1374, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    24. Roberto Rigobon & Dani Rodrik, 2004. "Rule of Law, Democracy, Openness, and Income: Estimating the Interrelationships," NBER Working Papers 10750, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    25. Sun, Peng & Heshmati, Almas, 2010. "International Trade and its Effects on Economic Growth in China," IZA Discussion Papers 5151, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    26. Iman Sugema, 2005. "The Determinants of Trade Balance and Adjustment to the Crisis in Indonesia," Centre for International Economic Studies Working Papers 2005-08, University of Adelaide, Centre for International Economic Studies.
    27. Naseeb Zada & Malik Muhammad & Khan Bahadar, 2011. "Determinants of Exports of Pakistan: A Country-wise Disaggregated Analysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 50(4), pages 715-732.
    28. Alvarez, Fernando & Lucas, Robert Jr., 2007. "General equilibrium analysis of the Eaton-Kortum model of international trade," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(6), pages 1726-1768, September.
    29. Festus Egwaikhide, 1999. "Effects of Budget Deficit on Trade Balance in Nigeria: A Simulation Exercise," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 11(2), pages 265-289.
    30. Awokuse, Titus O., 2007. "Causality between exports, imports, and economic growth: Evidence from transition economies," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 94(3), pages 389-395, March.
    31. Baldwin, Richard, 2012. "Global supply chains: Why they emerged, why they matter, and where they are going," CEPR Discussion Papers 9103, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    32. Purna Chandra Parida & Pravakar Sahoo, 2007. "Export-led Growth in South Asia: A Panel Cointegration Analysis," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(2), pages 155-175.
    33. Mohammad Afzal, 2006. "Causality between exports, world income and economic growth in Pakistan," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(1), pages 63-77.
    34. Subrata Ghatak & Chris Milner & Utku Utkulu, 1997. "Exports, export composition and growth : cointegration and causality evidence for Malaysia," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(2), pages 213-223.
    35. Emine KILAVUZ & Betül ALTAY TOPCU, 2012. "Export and Economic Growth in the Case of the Manufacturing Industry: Panel Data Analysis of Developing Countries," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 2(2), pages 201-215.
    36. Daron Acemoglu & Jaume Ventura, 2002. "The World Income Distribution," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(2), pages 659-694.
    37. Muhammad Imtiaz Subhani & Amber Osman & Rabia Khokhar, 2011. "The new version of gravity model in explaining bilateral trade. “A comparative study for developed and developing nations”," EuroEconomica, Danubius University of Galati, issue 28, pages 41-54, May.
    38. Filippini, Carlo & Molini, Vasco, 2003. "The determinants of East Asian trade flows: a gravity equation approach," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 695-711, October.
    39. Ana I. Sanjuán‐López & P. J. Dawson, 2010. "Agricultural Exports and Economic Growth in Developing Countries: A Panel Cointegration Approach," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(3), pages 565-583, September.
    40. Subrata Ghatak & Stephen Price, 1997. "Export composition and economic growth: Cointegration and causality evidence for India," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 133(3), pages 538-553, September.
    41. Buzby, Jean C. & Unnevehr, Laurian J., 2004. "Food Safety and International Trade," Agricultural Information Bulletins 33629, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    42. Jiandong Ju & Yi Wu & Li Zeng, 2010. "The Impact of Trade Liberalization on the Trade Balance in Developing Countries," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 57(2), pages 427-449, June.
    43. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
    44. Martinez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada & Nowak-Lehmann, Felicitas, 2003. "Augmented Gravity Model: An Empirical Application to Mercosur-European Union Trade Flows," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 6(2), pages 1-26, November.
    45. Nazir, Sidra & Qayyum, Abdul, 2014. "Impact of Oil Price and Shocks on Economic Growth of Pakistan: Multivariate Analysis," MPRA Paper 55929, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2014.
    46. Waliullah & Mehmood Khan Kakar & Rehmatullah Kakar & Wakeel Khan, 2010. "The Determinants of Pakistan’s Trade Balance: An ARDL Cointegration Approach," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 15(1), pages 1-26, Jan-Jun.
    47. MacDonald, Stephen & Pan, Suwen & Somwaru, Agapi & Tuan, Francis C., 2004. "China'S Role In World Cotton And Textile Markets," 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO 20054, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    48. Khan, Rana Ejaz Ali & Sattar, Rashid, 2010. "Trade, Growth and Povety: A Case of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 20904, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    49. repec:ags:uersfr:280158 is not listed on IDEAS
    50. Dollar, David & Kraay, Aart, 2003. "Institutions, trade, and growth," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 133-162, January.
    51. repec:ebd:wpaper:154 is not listed on IDEAS
    52. P. J. Dawson, 2005. "Agricultural exports and economic growth in less developed countries," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 33(2), pages 145-152, September.
    53. repec:ags:uersfr:279909 is not listed on IDEAS
    54. Mendoza, Enrique G., 1997. "Terms-of-trade uncertainty and economic growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 323-356, December.
    55. Naseem Akhter & Ejaz Ghani, 2010. "Regional Integration in South Asia: An Analysis of Trade Flows Using the Gravity Model," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 49(2), pages 105-118.
    56. Jamal Bouoiyour & Serge Rey, 2005. "Exchange Rate Regime, Real Exchange Rate, Trade Flows and Foreign Direct Investments: Morocco," Post-Print hal-01879695, HAL.
    57. Fabio Augusto Reis Gomes & Lourenco Senne Paz, 2005. "Can real exchange rate devaluation improve the trade balance? The 1990-1998 Brazilian case," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(9), pages 525-528.
    58. Bleaney, Michael & Greenaway, David, 2001. "The impact of terms of trade and real exchange rate volatility on investment and growth in sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 491-500, August.
    59. Mohsin Hasnain Ahmad & Shaista Alam & Mohammad Sabihuddin Butt, 2003. "Foreign Direct Investment, Exports, and Domestic Output in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(4), pages 715-723.
    60. Shaista Khan & Ihtisham ul Haq & Dilawar Khan, 2013. "An Empirical Analysis of Pakistan’s Bilateral Trade: A Gravity Model Approach," Romanian Economic Journal, Department of International Business and Economics from the Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, vol. 16(48), pages 103-120, June.
    61. Asel Isakova & Zsoka Koczan & Alexander Plekhanov, 2016. "How much do tariffs matter? Evidence from the customs union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(2), pages 166-184, June.
    62. repec:ags:uersfr:279900 is not listed on IDEAS
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:rnd:arimbr:v:8:y:2017:i:6:p:39-58. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Muhammad Tayyab). General contact details of provider: https://ojs.amhinternational.com/index.php/imbr .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.